The Breaking of Symmetry in Gravitational Attraction and the Random Motion of a Hydrogen Gas Molecule

Main Article Content

Choong Gun Sim


This paper examines symmetry breaking in gravitational attraction between gluons within a proton and shows that the random motion of hydrogen gas molecules might be caused by this breaking of symmetry. Anisotropic gravitational field is applied to a gluon elementary particle. Generally, gravitational force is offset when masses face each other. A progressive concept of gravitational attraction that gravitational force is also offset when gravitational field lines being shielded by each other is presented. The rigidification of vacuum by color-charged mass is introduced to explain the shielding of gravitational field lines. Both the gluon’s anisotropic gravitational field and the shielding mechanism demonstrate that the symmetry of gravitational attraction can be broken within a proton. The asymmetric gravitational attraction produced within a proton inevitably accelerates proton. Thus, a hydrogen gas molecule with independent acceleration vectors at the two hydrogen atoms exhibits the combination of vibrating, rotating and translation motions. Atomic vibrations in a solid are also caused by this acceleration.

Asymmetric gravitational attraction, random motion of gases, gravitation, atomic vibration, symmetry breaking

Article Details

How to Cite
Sim, C. (2019). The Breaking of Symmetry in Gravitational Attraction and the Random Motion of a Hydrogen Gas Molecule. Physical Science International Journal, 22(3), 1-9.
Original Research Article


Iess L, Folkner WM, Bolton SJ, et al. Measurement of Jupiter’s asymmetric gravity field. Nature 2018;555:220–222.

Guillot T, et al. A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter’s deep interior. Nature, 2018;555,25775:227–230.

Toll T. Viewpoint: Of gluons and fireflies. Physics. 2016;9:82.

Mäntysaari H, Schenke B. Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy. Phys. Rev. D. 2016;94.

Mäntysaari H, Schenke B. Evidence of strong proton shape fluctuations from Incoherent Diffraction. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2016;117.

Gell-Mann M. Symmetries of baryons and mesons. Physical Review. 1962;125(3).

Stella BR and Meyer HJ. Υ(9.46 GeV) and the gluon discovery (a critical recollection of PLUTO results). European Physical Journal H. 2011;36(2):203–243.

Gell-Mann M. A Schematic model of baryons and mesons. Phys. Lett. 1964;8: 214.

Zweig G. An SU (3) model for strong interaction symmetry and Its breaking. CERN Report 8419 TH 412; 1964.

Biddle J, Charvetto J, Kamleh W, Leinweber D, Piercy H, Puckridge E, Stokes F, Young RD, Zanotti J. Publicising lattice field theory through visualisation. The 36th Annual International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - LATTICE2018. 2018;22-28.

Ball, Philip. Nuclear masses calculated from scratch. Nature; 2014.

Tesla’s dynamic theory of gravity. The Millennium Report; 2016.

Chen SG. Does vacuum polarization influence gravitation? IL NUOVO CIMENTO. 1989;104.

Breidenbach M, et al. Observed behavior of highly inelastic electron–proton scattering. Physical Review Letters.1969; 23(16):935–939

Bissey F, Cao FG, Kitson AR, Signal AI, Leinweber DB, Lasscock BG, Williams AG. Gluon flux-tube distribution and linear confinement in baryons. Phys. Rev. 2007;76:114-512.

Mageshwaran M, Sorli A, Fiscaletti D. The foundations of the epistemology and the methodology of Physics. American Journal of Modern Physics, 2016;5(4-1).

Feynman R. The Feynman lectures on Physics. I. Addison Wesley Longman; 1970.

Peskin M, Schroeder D. an introduction to quantum field theory. Westview Press; 1995.

Weinberg S. Foundations. The quantum theory of fields I. Cambridge University Press; 2002.

Dirac PAM. A Theory of electrons and protons. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 1930;126 (801):360–365.

William JH, Ralph RB von F, Afif HS Gravity and Magnetic Exploration: Principles, Practices, and Applications; Cambridge University Press; 2013.

The neutron and proton weigh in, theoretically: Physics Today. 2015;68(6).

Gross DJ, F. Wilczek F. Ultraviolet behavior of non-abelian gauge theories. Physical Review Letters. 1973;30(26):1343–1346.

Politzer HD. Reliable perturbative results for strong interactions. Physical Review Letters. 1973;30(26):1346–1349.

Nola TR. How was earth formed? Science & Astronomy; 2016.