Physical Science International Journal 2019-11-22T08:25:47+00:00 Physical Science International Journal Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Physical Science International Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2348-0130) </strong>publishes original research articles, review articles and short communications, in all areas of Physics, Chemistry and Earth Sciences. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Effect of Primary Radio Climatic Variables on Tropospheric Surface Radio Refractivity Over 3 Stations in Nigeria 2019-11-22T06:49:20+00:00 A. I. Kareem K. F. Olaseinde K. A. Aminu <p>This study investigates the effect of primary radio climatic variables on the tropospheric surface radio refractivity across three stations (Makurdi (7.7322° N, 8.5391° E), Jos (9.8965° N, 8.8583° E) and Lagos (6.5244° N, 3.3792° E) in Nigeria. Two years (January 2008-December 2009) primary radio climatic variables data (temperature, pressure and relative humidity) obtained from the archive of the Tropospheric Data Acquisition Network (TRODAN) of the Centre for Atmospheric Research (CAR), which is an activity centre of the Nigeria National Space Research and Development Agency (NASDRA) was used for this study. The measurement was made at 30 minutes interval for a complete 24 hours cycle. The results obtained establish the variation of temperature and relative humidity to refractivity across the region.</p> 2019-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diurnal, Seasonal and Annual Variation of Microwave Radio Refractivity Gradient over Akure, South West Nigeria 2019-11-22T06:49:18+00:00 Adekunle Titus Adediji Joseph Babatunde Dada Moses Oludare Ajewole <p>In this study, four years in-situ measurements of atmospheric parameters (pressure, temperature and relative humidity) were carried out. The measurement was by placing an automatic weather station at five different heights: ground surface, 50, 100, 150 and 200 m respectively on a 220 m Nigeria Television Authority TV tower in Akure, South Western Nigeria. The four years Data collected (January 2007 to December 2009 and January to December 2011) were used to compute radio refractivity and its gradient. The local effect of a location/ region cannot but looked into when designing effective radio link, hence the diurnal, seasonal and annual variations of the radio refractivity gradient were studied. Results showed that refractivity gradient steadily increases inthe hour of 8:30 and 9:30 to 18:00 during dry season throughout the years investigated, and decreases two hours in the rainy season than the dry season. The record shows that at 50 m altitude, the maximum and minimum values are 158 N-unit/km around 14:30 and - 286 N-unit/km around 13:30 to 14:00 hrs, LT during the dry and rainy season respectively. Seasonally, refractivity gradient is steeper with greater variability in the dry season months than in the wet season months.</p> 2019-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relativistic Properties of a Lagrangian and a Hamiltonian in Quantum Theories 2019-11-22T08:25:47+00:00 Eliahu Comay <p>Relativistic properties of a Dirac Lagrangian density are compared with those of a Dirac Hamiltonian density. Differences stem from the fact that a Lagrangian density is a Lorentz scalar, whereas a Hamiltonian density is a 00-component of a second rank tensor, called the energy-momentum tensor. This distinction affects the form of an interaction term of a Dirac particle. In particular, a tensor interaction term of a Dirac Lagrangian density transforms to a difference between a vector and an axial vector of the corresponding Hamiltonian density. This outcome shows that fundamental principles can prove the V-A attribute of weak interactions. A further analysis supports these results. Inherent problems of the electroweak theory are discussed.</p> 2019-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##