Physical Science International Journal 2019-09-19T11:11:13+00:00 Physical Science International Journal Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Physical Science International Journal (2348-0130) </strong>publishes original research articles, review articles and short communications, in all areas of Physics, Chemistry and Earth Sciences. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> The Greenhouse Effect Definition 2019-08-30T12:39:55+00:00 Antero Ollila <p>The greenhouse effect concept explains the Earth’s elevated temperature. The IPCC endorses the anthropogenic global warming theory, and it assumes that the greenhouse (GH) effect is due to the longwave (LW) absorption by GH gases and clouds. The IPCC’s GH definition lets to understand that the LW absorption is responsible for the downward radiation to the surface. According to the energy laws, it is not possible that the LW absorption of 155.6 Wm<sup>-2</sup> by the GH gases could re-emit downward LW radiation of 345.6 Wm<sup>-2</sup> on the Earth’s surface. When the shortwave (SW) absorption is decreased from this total LW radiation, the rest of the radiation is 270.6 Wm<sup>-2</sup>. This LW radiation downward is the imminent cause for the GH effect increasing the surface temperature by the 33°C. It includes LW absorption by the GH gases and clouds in the atmosphere and the latent and sensible heating effects. Without the latent and sensible heating impacts in the atmosphere, the downward LW radiation could not close the energy balance of the surface. The contribution of CO<sub>2</sub> in the GH effect is 7.4% corresponding to 2.5°C in temperature. This result does not only mutilate the image of CO<sub>2</sub> as a strong GH gas, but it has further consequences in climate models. It turned out that the IPCC’s climate model showing a climate sensitivity (CS) of 1.2°C (caused by CO<sub>2</sub> effects only) could not be fitted into the total GH effect of CO<sub>2</sub>. A climate model showing a CS of 0.6°C matches the CO<sub>2</sub> contribution in the GH effect.</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Is There a Relationship between Energy, Amount of Information and Temperature? 2019-08-24T09:21:36+00:00 Boris M. Menin <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To use the generally accepted formulas linking energy, temperature and information, and not requiring any additional restrictions, to introduce a <em>practical</em> numerical value of the energy of any specific object based on the amount of information and thermodynamic temperature.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Beer-Sheba, between January 2019 and July 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> By combining the Landauer limit and Bekenstein’s proof that the amount of information of any physical system must be finite, if the object space and its energy are finite, the values of energy-matter and energy, based on the amount of information, were calculated for various elements of nature. In addition, a formula is presented for the energy of the universe containing these two components.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The energy content of an object depends not only on its mass and speed. The value of the additional independent component, due to the amount of information contained in the object, is caused by its size and the ambient temperature. This component has never been considered in the scientific literature. This means that energy is inextricably linked with both the space and the thermodynamic component of Nature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Using the generally accepted formulas linking energy, temperature and information and not requiring any additional restrictions, we have shown that it is possible to represent the energy of the universe on the basis of information theory.</p> 2019-08-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Annealing Temperature in Improvement the Optical Properties of TiO2 Doped Fe2O3 to Use in Thin Film 2019-09-13T09:41:59+00:00 Abubakr Mahmoud Hamid Hassan Wardi Hassan Fatima Ahmed Osman <p>Solar energy is already has being widely successfully used in residential and industrial setting for thermal and electrical application such as space technology, communication, etc. I.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study the effect of the annealing temperature in improvement optical properties of titanium oxide nanostructure doped iron oxide for use in thin film.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The spray pyrolysis deposition method used for preparation the nanostructure material.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study was conducted in department of physics and department of materials sciences, Al-Neelain University, between January 2016 and January 2019.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thin films of Titanium Oxide (TiO<sub>2)</sub> doped Iron Oxide (Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) have been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique. A laboratory designed glass atomizer was used for spraying the aqueous solution. Which has an output nozzle about 1 mm. then film were deposited on preheated cleaned glass substrates at temperature of 400°C. we used different concentration to study optical parameters. A 1.5 g TiO2 powder of anatase structure doped with 1.5 g of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>was mixed with 2 ml of ethanol and stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes to form TiO<sub>2</sub> paste to obtain the starting solution for deposition and spray time was 10 s and spray interval 2 min was kept constant. The carrier gas (filtered compressed air) was maintained at a pressure of 10<sup>5</sup> Nm<sup>-2</sup>, and distance between nozzle and substrate was about 30 cm ± 1 cm. Thickness of sample was measured using the weighting method and was found to be around 400nm. Optical transmittance and absorbance were record in wavelength range of (200-1100) nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu Company Japan).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results obtained showed that the optical band gap decreased from 5.6eV before annealing to (3.9, 3.26, 3.24 and 3.27 eV) after annealing temperature at(450° – 500°) for TiO<sub>2</sub>:Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> thin films, this result refer to the broadening of&nbsp; secondary levels that product by TiO<sub>2</sub>: doping to the Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>thin films. Also the results showed the variation of refractive index with wavelength for different concentration after annealing temperature at (450° – 500°) of TiO<sub>2:</sub> Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> films from this figure, it is clear that n decrease with low concentration and increase with high concentration after annealing temperature that mean the density is decreased of this films. In addition the extinction coefficient of TiO<sub>2</sub>:Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> thin films recorded before annealing and with different concentration (1.1, 1.2, 1,5 and 1,6) and in the range of (300 – 1200) nm and at annealing temperature from (450° – 500°). It observed from that the extinction coefficient, decrease sharply with the increase of wavelength for all prepared films and all the sample after annealing is interference between them accept the sample before annealing is far from the other sample.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The TiO<sub>2</sub> thin film shows better result after annealing; By exposing temperature during annealing process degree at (450<sup>o</sup>- 500<sup>o</sup>) is found to be the best temperature for annealing TiO<sub>2</sub> thin film. The study concluded that an annealing temperature Contributes to the improvement of optical properties related to increasing the efficiency of the solar cell, especially the refractive index, energy gap, extinction coefficient.</p> 2019-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Cosmic Ray Invasions and Aerosol Plasma on Powerful Atmospheric Vortices 2019-09-16T12:34:52+00:00 N. I. Izhovkina S. N. Artekha N. S. Erokhin L. A. Mikhailovskaya <p>The Earth’s atmosphere is affected by various ionizing sources. The maximum ionization of atmospheric particles by cosmic rays corresponds to the altitude of formation of tropospheric clouds. In the high-latitude troposphere for the region of the geomagnetic polar cap, in the winter period, the excitation of local cyclonic structures are observed which are accompanied with ice storms, with invasions into middle and subtropical latitudes. The time of excitation of such cyclones is about a day that is comparable with the time of excitation of tornadoes, which are generated at low latitudes. Localization of polar cyclones is not accidental. The region of the polar cap is connected with geomagnetic field lines extended into the tail of the Earth’s magnetosphere. This area is open for the penetration of cosmic rays. The ionization of aerosols in the stratosphere and the upper troposphere by precipitating particles of cosmic rays enhances the vortex activity of the atmosphere. The important role of the aerosol impurity is manifested in the generation of plasma vortices and in the accumulation of energy and mass in the atmosphere by vortices during condensation of moisture. Due to the cascade character of the ionization process, the influence of cosmic radiation turns out to be non-linear and increases with increasing pollution of the atmosphere. Aperiodic electrostatic perturbations, which play a remarkable role in the genesis of vortices, are stochastically excited in plasma inhomogeneities. During the interaction of plasma vortices and Rossby vortices, a large-scale vortex structure is formed and grows.</p> 2019-09-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Thickness of a Mineral Layer of Granite and Marble on the Mechanical Properties of a Bilayer Material: Case of Granites 2019-09-19T11:11:13+00:00 Bachir Koladé Adédokun Ambelohoun Chakirou Akanho Toukourou Guy Clarence Semassou Jean Lois Fannou Malahimi Anjorin Vincent Prodjinonto <p>The present work is dedicated to the study of the mechanical properties of a bilayer material. This material consists of a mortar substrate and a mineral layer of granite or marble. The mixture of these two constituents of different characteristics gives a material whose properties will vary depending on the density of each constituent. The standardized testing on sand and the three point bending and compression tests are among other methods used for the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of the specimens of 4 cm × 4 cm × 16 cm dimensions. The results of these tests show that samples of the mineral layer in granite with a thickness of 1.7 and that of 1.4 cm in marble get good bending resistance in three point respectively equal to 10.63 and 10.3 MPa. As for the compression tests, it appears that the compressive resistance increases with the thickness of the mineral layer but evolves in reverse with the rate of water absorption of these materials. The best resistance in compression obtained with the samples having the thickness of 2 cm of the granite or marble mineral layers are respectively 24.47 and 24.07 MPa. In addition, for this same thickness, the Bilayers offer a better rate of water absorption.</p> 2019-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##