Physical Science International Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Physical Science International Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2348-0130) </strong>publishes original research articles, review articles and short communications, in all areas of Physics, Chemistry and Earth Sciences. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Physical Science International Journal en-US Physical Science International Journal 2348-0130 The Pause End and Major Temperature Impacts during Super El Niños are Due to Shortwave Radiation Anomalies <p>The hiatus or temperature pause during the 21<sup>st</sup> century has been the subject of numerous research studies with very different results and proposals. In this study, two simple climate models have been applied to test the causes of global temperature changes. The climate change factors have been shortwave (SW) radiation changes, changes in cloudiness and ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) events assessed as the ONI (Oceanic Niño Index) values and anthropogenic climate drivers. The results show that a simple climate model assuming no positive water feedback follows the satellite temperature changes very well, the mean absolute error (MAE) during the period from 2001 to July 2019 being 0.073°C and 0.082°C in respect to GISTEMP. The IPCC’s simple climate model shows for the same period errors of 0.191°C and 0.128°C respectively. The temperature in 2017-2018 was about 0.2°C above the average value in 2002–2014. The conclusion is that the pause was over after 2014 and the SW anomaly forcing was the major reason for this temperature increase. SW anomalies have had their greatest impacts on the global temperature during very strong (super) El Niño events in 1997-98 and 2015-16, providing a new perspective for ENSO events. A positive SW anomaly continued after 2015-16 which may explain the weak La Niña 2016 temperature impacts, and a negative SW anomaly after 1997-98 may have contributed two strong La Niña peaks 1998-2001. No cause and effect connection could be found between the SW radiation and temperature anomalies in Nino areas.</p> Antero Ollila ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 1 20 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i230174 Influence of the Water Nature on the Two-phase Flow in an Air-lift Column <p>The aim of this study is to determine the phase indicator functions of a two-phase flow in an air-lift vacuum column. The outcome of this study is to master the hydrodynamics in a vertical column when determining the size, the velocities of the bubbles and the void rate then the gas-liquid interphase. The functions are the vacuum rate, the interface speed and bubble size, the flow rate and the speed of the liquid phase. The vacuum lift air column that is the subject of this study is based on the principle of air lift and flotation, all under vacuum. In its operation, the column combines hydraulic pumping, solute transfer and particle phase separation functions, which has the particularity of minimizing energy costs. The process of air-lift columns under the vacuum is still at the development stage and the experimental study of its hydrodynamics is one of the determining axes in the course of the exploration with a assessment to optimizing its design and functioning. The experiments were carried out on a vertical column composed of two concentric plexiglas tubes connected to a water recirculation tank and to a vacuum pump. For all experiments performed, demineralized water and salt water are used and the flow rate is measured using a flow meter. The experimental analysis is done using two-phase instrumentation consisting of a bi-probe and the use of experimental techniques has enabled a better understanding of the hydrodynamics of the two-phase flow.</p> Djimako Bongo Alexis Mouangué Nanimina Nandiguim Lamai Togdjim Jonas Bonaventure Danoumbe J. Y. Champagne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-17 2020-03-17 21 30 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i230175 Double Helix Structure of Photon <p>Does photon have structure, what structure? A useful clue is: The EM theory predicts that the helical distribution of vector EH plus speed &nbsp;makes the angular momentum of the circular polarized light. <sup>&nbsp;</sup>Photon possesses speed &nbsp;and spin , weather its spin and other basic properties are also owing to the similar EH structure plus ? We are going to find out the answer. Starting from an ordinary symmetrical EM-wave beam, we do not presuppose it having any relation with the photon and quantization. We will prove the symmetrical wave beam is circular polarized; it is composed of an -energy packet and a conical (EM) wave with much smaller energy. The energy packet is a small and thin slice of circular polarized EH field wrapped by a cylindrical side membrane with helically distributed . Mechanical equilibrium between &nbsp;and stresses &nbsp;in the side membrane and the EH field inside construct a very steady structure to keep its integrity and energy. The energy-packet will be proved having almost all the basic properties we used to know for the photon(s). It floats on the front of the conical (EM) wave. They move with the same phase until meeting an obstacle. The energy packet and accompanying wave satisfy the same circular polarized wave function and play a role together in the processes of emission, absorption and interference. They show wave particle properties all the time. It seems such EM train can be reasonably treated as a photon and vice versa.</p> Sennian Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-04 2020-04-04 31 41 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i230176 Estimation of Fuel Burnup Rate for Core Conversion for the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) Fueled With 19.75% Enriched UO2 USING VENTURE PC Code <p>A standardized burnup analysis using VENTURE-PC computer codes system has been performed for the core conversion study of Nigeria Research Reactor-1. The result obtained from this analysis showed that the mass of Uranium decreases with increase in the number of days of reactor operation while the quantity of Plutonium continues to build up linearly. The buildup of the fissile isotope in the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) core is very much greater than in the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) core. The quantity of Uranium-235 consumed and the amount of Plutonium-239 produce in the core of the reactor were 13.95 g and 0.766745 g respectively for the period of 11 years of reactor operation which is in good agreement with other literatures. This results obtained showed that uranium dioxide (UO<sub>2</sub>) fuel is a potential material for future Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) core conversion of Nigeria Research Reactor.</p> J. A. Rabba M. Y. Onimisi D. O. Samson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 42 49 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i230177