Self-Organization of Charged Particles in an Electric Field
Issue: 2021 - Volume 25 [Issue 4]
William J. B. Oldham Jr. *
exas Tech University, 3877 Royal Troon Drive Round Rock, Texas 78664, India.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Self-organization in small systems of particles with simple dynamic laws has been simulated. The purpose of this work was to investigate self-organization in small systems of charged particles under the influence of an electric field where we could follow individual particles. There are positively and negatively charged particles. The intention is to look for pattern formation as the system evolves. Three electric fields and the particle-to-particle interactions were utilized to provide the forces. The three electric fields were a constant field, a ramp field, and an oscillatory field. The final system states for various electric fields are presented. For the two kinds of particles simulated, like particles have a repulsive force, while unlike particles have an attractive force. Initially, the particles are randomly distributed in a two dimensional square bounded region, and then allowed to dynamically interact for a number of iterations. Using the inverse square law force, modified at short distances, most cases resulted in equilibrium with the particles of opposite polarity paired up. Since this was a state of equilibrium no more movement occurred. The results of the experiments are presented in graphical format. The main conclusions are that this model can be used to study small dynamic systems, and that the presence of an external electric field does not significantly modify the final configuration but hastens the development of the equilibrium state.
Keywords: Self-Organization, computer simulation, evolution, dynamics, non-equilibrium, particle-to-particle interaction, cluster formation, electric fields