The Application of Little’s Effect and Ferrochemistry for New Approach for Extraction of LIOH from Salar Geothermal Brines
Issue: 2021 - Volume 25 [Issue 12]
Reginald B. Little *
Department of Natural Sciences, Stillman College, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401, USA.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
A prior theory of Ferrochemistry and its Laws for Little’s Rules 1, 2 and 3 are applied to systems of nuclear spins and nucleon angular momenta for using applied static magnetic fields, static electric fields, ultrasonic vibrations, and radio frequency waves for stimulating, separating and extracting various cations from geothermal, salar brines. Down the group and families of alkali, alkaline earth and halide ions, considerations are given of variations in e- e- --- e- e- --- e- interactions and e- e- --- nuclear interactions from s to p to d to f subshells with complex inter and intra orbital, subshell and shell interactions. The unique symmetry of s orbital for reversibly collapsing on nuclei and vice versa nuclei fractionally, reversibly fissing for nuclear pressures into s orbitals and from s subshells into outer subshells of higher azimuthal quanta are given. The alterations of the electronic shells and variations among elements and their isotopes are disclosed to cause the novel mechanics for separating the alkali cations and lithium, specifically. An analogy is draw between extractions of Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ cations in graphene-nanodiamond nanofiltering membrane and variations of these ions in ion channels of brain and nervous systems in animals and humans for determining new mechanics of diseases like mania, depression, and bipolar disorder with treatments by Li+ is considered. Advantages of this graphene, nanodiamond nanofilter relative to current methods are considered. Details of the mechanics on basis of varying sizes of s orbitals, symmetries of s orbitals, varying rotation rates of the cations, varying spins of the cations, and varying nuclear magnetic moments (NMMs) of the cations are presented. The originality of the author’s theory of invoking NMMs for differing interactions is contrasted with prior nuclear spin effects of prior investigators. Complex spin and angular momenta interactions of the cations, anions, protons and halides are considered. A novel method of using the static magnetic field, static electric fields, radio frequency waves and ultrasounds for selective precipitations of LiOH (s) with retarding Li2CO3 (s) is presented. The ultrasounds and radio waves may agitate in operation to prevent clogging of the graphene/nanodiamond nanofiltration membrane. On the basis of separation factors (ξ) as by ratios of various NMMs of the cations in geothermal salar brines, the separation factor varies from: ξ(Li+/Na+) = 1.45; to ξ(Li+/K+) = 8.35 to ξ(Co/Li) = 0.607 to ξ(Co/Mn) = 0.635. The similar, large NMMs of Li with Co and Mn with small differences in spins may by the theory here be the explanation and cause for more difficult separation of Li from Co and Mn and the current empirical affinity of Li for Co and Mn as indeed Co and Mn have been observed as sorbents for Li.
Keywords: Lithium Extraction, geothermal salar brines, nuclear magnetic moments, radio waves, ultrasound, static magnetic fields, static electric fields