The Study of Blood Conductivity and Viscosity in Malaria
Physical Science International Journal, Volume 26, Issue 11-12,
Malaria is the most widespread disease in Africa and developing countries which has a negative effect on everyday life and causes thousands death each year. To find new, more precise, and less expensive diagnostic methods, an increasing number of studies are needed. In order to replace the conventional method for detecting the presence of malaria parasites in human blood, the electrical conductivity and viscosity of the blood of falciparum malaria were measured. To investigate the effect of malaria on physical properties; a total of hundred blood samples were collected from Khartoum state teaching hospital, samples were subdivided into two groups, fifty from the malaria patient and other fifty from healthy people setting as control group. An Ostwald viscometer, a hematocrit centrifuge and conductivity equipment were used to measure the viscosity, hematocrit and electrical conductivity of blood respectively. In this study it was found that the mean value of hematocrit for healthy individuals was 45.7%. While in malaria patients was 27.7 %, in addition, the mean value of blood viscosity for healthy individuals was 4.4 cp, while 2.8 cp, for patients. The mean value for conductivity of whole blood in healthy individuals was 4.4 m. s, whereas it was 3.9 m.s in patients, but the mean value of serum conductivity was 4.3 in patients a m.s and 8.3 in healthy individuals.
Conclusion: The results obtained in this indicated significantly changed in viscosity, hematocrit and electrical conductivity of blood due malaria parasites. These physical changes caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria can be used as new malaria diagnostic techniques.
- blood viscosity
- blood conductivity
How to Cite
Honrado C, Ciuffreda L, Spencer D, Ranford-Cartwright L, Morgan H. Dielectric characterization of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells using microfluidic impedance cytometry. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 2018; 15(147):20180416. Available:http://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2018.0416
Bouyer G, Cueff A, Egée S, Kmiecik J, Maksimova Y, Glogowska E, Gallagher PG, Thomas SL. Erythrocyte peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor/voltage-dependent anion channels are upregulated by Plasmodium falciparum. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology. 2011;118(8):2305-2312.
Marginedas-Freixa I, Hattab C, Bouyer G, Halle F, Chene A, Lefevre SD, Cambot M, Cueff A, Schmitt M, Gamain B, Lacapère JJ. TSPO ligands stimulate ZnPPIX transport and ROS accumulation leading to the inhibition of P. falciparum growth in human blood. Scientific Reports. 2016;6(1):1-15.
Singh S, Shukla JB, Chandra P. Modelling and analysis of the spread of malaria: Environmental and ecological effects. Journal of Biological Systems. 2005;13 (01):1-11.
Mauritz JM, Esposito A, Ginsburg H, Kaminski CF, Tiffert T, Lew VL. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells. Plos Computational Biology. 2009;5(4): e1000339.
Fitri LE, Widaningrum T, Endharti AT, Prabowo MH, Winaris N, Nugraha RYB. Malaria diagnostic update: From conventional to advanced method. J Clin Lab Anal. 2022;36(4):e24314.
DOI: 10.1002/jcla.24314. Epub 2022 Mar 4. PMID: 35247002; PMCID: PMC8993657.
Slater L, Ashraf S, Zahid O, Ali Q, Oneeb M, Akbar MH, Riaz MI, Afshan K, Sargison N, Chaudhry U. Current methods for the detection of Plasmodium parasite species infecting humans. Curr Res Parasitol Vector Borne Dis. 2022;2:100086. DOI: 10.1016/j.crpvbd.2022.100086. PMID: 35434694; PMCID: PMC9006665.
Oyegoke OO, Maharaj L, Akoniyon OP, et al. Malaria diagnostic methods with the elimination goal in view. Parasitol Res. 2022;121:1867–1885. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-022-07512-9
Tamas Alexy, Jon Detterich, Philippe Connes, Kalman Toth, Elie Nader, Peter Kenyeres, Jose Arriola-Montenegro, Pinar Ulker, Michae J. Simmonds physical properties of blood and their relationship to clinical conditions; 2022. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2022.906768
Alexy T, et al. Physical properties of blood and their relationship to clinical conditions. Front Physiol. 2022;13:906768. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2022.906768, PMID: 35874542; PMCID: PMC9298661.
Trejo-Soto C, Hernández-Machado A. Normalization of blood viscosity according to the hematocrit and the shear rate. Micromachines (Basel). 2022;13(3): 357. DOI: 10.3390/mi13030357. PMID: 35334649; PMCID: PMC8954080.
Tao R, Rongjia, Huang KE. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields. Physical review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. 2011;84: 011905. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.011905
Khonsary SA. Guyton and hall: Textbook of medical physiology. Surgical Neurology International. 2017;8.
Linda S. Costanzo. 1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd. Ste 1800 Philadelphia, PA 19103-2899 Physiology, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 978-0-323-47881.
Britt Wilson L, Raj Dasgupta, Conrad Fischer, Frank P. Noto. Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes, Physiology; 2016.
Wells RE Jr, Merrill EW. Influence of flow properties of blood upon viscosity-hematocrit relationships. J Clin Invest. 1962;41(8):1591-8. DOI: 10.1172/JCI104617. PMID: 14040228; PMCID: PMC291077
Vapro 5520 user manual online. Vapor Pressure Osmometer. 5520 measuring instruments pdf manual download.
Price RN, Simpson JA, Nosten F, Luxemburger C, Hkirjaroen L, ter Kuile F, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, White NJ. Factors contributing to anemia after uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65(5):614-22. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2001.65.614; PMID: 11716124; PMCID: PMC4337986
Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Happi CT, Folarin OA, Michael OS, Adewoye EO. Therapeutic efficacy and effects of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine coformulated or copackaged on malaria-associated anemia in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southwest Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84(5):813-9. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0582; PMID: 21540395; PMCID: PMC3083753
Chotivanich K, Udomsangpetch R, Dondorp A, Williams T, Angus B, Simpson JA, Pukrittayakamee S, Looareesuwan S, Newbold CI, White NJ. The mechanisms of parasite clearance after antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000;182(2):629–633.
Jones TR, Stroncek DF, Gozalo AS, Obaldia N, Andersen EM, Lucas C, Narum DL, Magill AJ, Sim BK, Hoffman SL. Anemia in parasite-and recombinant protein-immunized aotus monkeys infected with Plasmodium falciparum. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2002;66(6):672-9.
La’lang M, Budhy TI, Prastyawati R. Description of hematocrit in malaria tropica (Plasmodium falciparum) patients at Jayapura Regional General Hospital. Malaysian J Med Heal Sci. 2021;17:2636-9346.
Egan AF, Fabucci ME, Saul A, Kaslow DC, Miller LH. Aotus New World monkeys: Model for studying malaria-induced anemia. Blood, the Journal of the American Society of Hematology. 2002;99(10):3863-6.
Rojanasthien S, Surakamolleart V, Boonpucknavig S, Isarangkura P. Hematological and coagulation studies in malaria. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand= Chotmaihet Thangphaet. 1992;75:190-4.
Dondorp AM, Kager PA, Vreeken J, White NJ. Abnormal blood flow and red blood cell deformability in severe malaria. Parasitology Today. 2000;16(6):228-32.
Somnath M, Vincent H, et.al. Identification and analysis of dihydrofolate redyctase alleles from plasmodium falciprum present at low frequency in polycolonal patient sample. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1990;61(1):131–14.
Brooks RR, Ryan DE, Zhang HF. Atom. Spectro. Sc. 1981;2:161–162.
Horan FE, Hirsch FG. Surface effects on blood clotting components as determined by zeta potentials. J. Clin. Investigation. 1976;29:2.02.
Jacoline S, et al. Conductivity-based hematocrit measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass. J. Clin. Mon. Com. 2007;21(1).
Hirsch FG, et al. The electrical conductivity of blood: I. Relation to clotting and clot retraction. Blood. 1997;5:1017-1035.
Abstract View: 23 times
PDF Download: 14 times