Entropy and Temperature from Entangled Space and Time

Young S. Kim *

Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA

Marilyn E. Noz

Department of Radiology, New York University, New York, 10016, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Two coupled oscillators provide a mathematical instrument for solving many problems in modern physics, including squeezed states of light and Lorentz transformations of quantum bound states. The concept of entanglement can also be studied within this mathematical framework. For the system of two entangled photons, it is of interest to study what happens to the remaining photon if the other photon is not observed. It is pointed out that this problem is an issue of Feynman’s rest of the universe. For quantum bound-state problems, it is pointed out the longitudinal and time-like coordinates become entangled when the system becomes boosted. Since time-like oscillations are not observed, the problem is exactly like the two-photon system where one of the photons is not observed. While the hadron is a quantum bound state of quarks, it appears quite differently when it moves rapidly than when it moves slowly. For slow hadrons, Gell-Mann’s quark model is applicable, while Feynman’s parton model is applicable to hadrons with their speeds close to that of light. While observing the temperature dependence of the speed, it is possible to explain the quark-to-parton transition as a phase transition.

Keywords: Lorentz boost, squeezed states, entanglement, entropy, temperature

How to Cite

S. Kim, Young, and Marilyn E. Noz. 2014. “Entropy and Temperature from Entangled Space and Time”. Physical Science International Journal 4 (7):1015-39. https://doi.org/10.9734/PSIJ/2014/10336.


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