https://journalpsij.com/index.php/PSIJ/issue/feed Physical Science International Journal 2024-05-22T11:18:59+00:00 Physical Science International Journal contact@journalpsij.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Physical Science International Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2348-0130)</strong> publishes original research articles, review articles and short communications, in all areas of Physics, Chemistry and Earth Sciences. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> https://journalpsij.com/index.php/PSIJ/article/view/832 Effects of Variable Thermal Conductivity on MHD Fluid Flow on Rotating Vertical Cone in the Presence of Darcy Forchheimer, Soret and Dufour Effects through a Porous Medium 2024-04-25T08:38:27+00:00 I. J. Uwanta I. D. Yale A. Ahmed abdahmej@gmail.com <p>This research investigated the effects of Variable Thermal Conductivity on MHD fluid on a Rotating Vertical Cone in the Presence of Darcy Forchheimer, Soret and Dufour effects through a porous medium. The system of nonlinear differential equations were transformed into first order differential equations and solved using shooting technique in Matlab package Bvp4c.Furthermore, the effects of various parameters over the main physical quantities are shown graphically and also extensively discussed. The result shows that Thermal conductivity increases Tangential Velocity, Temperature and decreases Normal Velocity. Dufour increases Tangential Velocity and decreases Normal Velocity. Radiation parameter R enhances Tangential Velocity and Temperature.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalpsij.com/index.php/PSIJ/article/view/833 Examining the Radiological Health Risks Associated with Water Sourced from the Ogwashi-Uku Earth Dam in Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State, Nigeria 2024-05-01T09:51:43+00:00 Ijabor Blessing Okeoghene blessingslinks03@yahoo.com Nwabuoku Augustine Onyema Oduah Emeka Charles Oduje Favour <p>Given the increased human activities and population growth in Ogwashi-Uku, there is a possibility of potential contamination of the water in the dam with elevated levels of alpha and beta radiation. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the radiological health risks associated with water obtained from the Ogwashi-Uku Earth dam by analyzing the concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta activity in the water. The results indicate that the measured activity concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta in the water samples are below the permissible limits of 0.1 Bq/l and 1.0 Bq/l respectively. Additionally, the average annual effective dose equivalent calculated for all the water samples is lower than the recommended dose limit of 0.1 mSv for radionuclides in water. These findings suggest that the assessed life cancer risk associated with the water consumption is low, indicating that the water from the Ogwashi-Uku Earth dam is safe for consumption.</p> 2024-05-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalpsij.com/index.php/PSIJ/article/view/834 The Influence of Anti-scatter Grid Usage for Knee Computerized Radiography 2024-05-13T07:07:58+00:00 Luísa Vargas Cassol Nataly Nogueira Favarin Felipe de Bail Edméia Lopes Ramai Buss Laura Pizarro Trojahn Nogueira Jéssica Fetzer da Costa Rosa Thiago Victorino Claus clausrx@gmail.com <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This experimental study investigated the effect of using an anti-scatter grid in computerized knee radiography (CR) on image quality (IQ) and patient surface radiation dose (Equivalent Surface Air Kerma – K<sub>a,e</sub>), measured with an ionization chamber.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The experimental study was conducted between February 2024 and April 2024, in the radiodiagnosis laboratory belonging to the Medical Physics and Radiology Technology courses at the Franciscan University (UFN) in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Utilizing a semi-anatomical knee phantom to simulate clinical examination conditions, ten images were acquired, with five obtained using technique 1 (70 kV, 200mA, and 20mAs) and another five with technique 2 (70 kVp, 200mA, and 5 mAs), with and without an anti-scatter grid, respectively. The phantom images were digitized in a CR system and quantified using a publicly available automatic analyzer software based on histograms and regions of interest (ROI), defined by signal and noise. The obtained results were used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and radiographic contrast (RC), considered IQ descriptors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> As a selection criterion, the percentage deviation (D%) was chosen, considering technique 1 as the reference concerning technique 2. It was observed that technique 1 showed an SNR 1.20%, RC 3.86%, and K<sub>a,e</sub> 73.68% higher than technique 2; on the other hand, technique 2 indicated a CNR 4.76% higher compared to technique 1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that technique 2 without an anti-scatter grid may be preferable when considering the principle of optimization, where the dose is significantly reduced without a significant loss in IQ descriptors.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalpsij.com/index.php/PSIJ/article/view/835 A Comparative Analysis of Radioactive Material Concentrations in Natural Sources Linked to Mining in Niger using two Measurement Methods 2024-05-21T10:53:42+00:00 Yacouba Souley Abdoullaziz abdoulaziz.yac87@gmail.com Aboubacar Almoustapha Mohamed H. Hassan <p>In the present work, we report the results of radioactivity measurements carried out in soils from the COMINAK and SOMAIR mining areas, using normal mode gamma-ray spectroscopy (NMGS) and thermal neutron activation analysis (TNAA). Radio activities were determined for two series radionuclides (U-238 and Th-232) and one non-series radionuclide (K-40) from measured gamma-ray spectra. The activity concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 were respectively determined from the average nuclide concentration [Pb-214 (295.2keV ; 19.20%), Pb-214(351.9keV ; 37.10%), Bi-214 (609.3keV ; 46.90%), Bi-214 (1120.2keV; 15.04%) and Bi-214 (1764.49 keV; 15.90%)] and [Pb-212 (238.6keV; 43.6%), Pb-212 (300.09 keV; 3.18%), and Ac-228 (911.2keV; 25.8%), Ac-228 (968.9keV; 15.8%), Ac-228 (338.32 keV; 11.27%)]. The activity concentrations of K-40 are determined directly by measuring gamma-ray transitions at 1460.8keV (100%) using a high-resolution pure germanium detector with good efficiency from the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. We find that the result found in NMGS technique and TNAA technique for COMINAK soil sample for U-238 and Th-232 are 2.32mg/Kg, 2.36mg/Kg and 11.67mg/Kg, 11.72mg/Kg respectively the results are getting closer. In SOMAIR soil sample the result found for U-238 is getting closer 1.35mg/Kg and 1.34mg/Kg respectively for NMGS and TNAA and also for Th-232 the result is close 7.2mg/Kg and 7.87mg/Kg respectively for NMGS and TNAA. The results obtained confirm that one of the samples (COMINAK soil) is more radioactive than the SOMAIR soil samples, and the results are similar for both NMGS and TNAA techniques, with the exception of thorium in the SOMAIR soil sample. This study will help to assess the environmental impact around the mining areas.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalpsij.com/index.php/PSIJ/article/view/836 Comparison of the Decomposition of Static Interquark Potential in SU(3) Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics 2024-05-22T11:18:59+00:00 Chitra Kandpal chitrakandpal700@gmail.com <p>We study the decomposition of interquark potential and quantitatively compare the utility of V(r) \(\approx\) V<sub>abel</sub> (r) + V<sub>offdiag</sub> (r) and V(r) \(\approx\) V<sub>mon</sub>(r) + V<sub>mod</sub>(r) by calculating respective average relative deviation. We also study the slope of V<sub>abel</sub>(r) and compare it with the slope of original SU(3) interquark potential over large distances so that we can study their exact confinement behavior. Remarkably, we found that for 24<sup>4</sup> lattice at \(\beta\) = 6.0<em>, </em>the sum of potentials V<sub>mon</sub>(r) + V<sub>mod</sub>(r) matches the original interquark potential V(r) more than V<sub>abel</sub>(r) + V<sub>offdiag</sub>(r). Comparing our results we found that perfect Abelian dominance is not seem to satisfy even for sufficiently large physical spatial volume (approximately larger than(2<em>fm)<sup>3</sup></em>).</p> 2024-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.