Open Access Method Article

Amount of Information and Measurement Uncertainty

Boris Menin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i330179

Aims: To acquaint specialists in the field of physics and technology, experimenters and theoreticians with the possibilities of using information theory to analyze the results of an experiment, without a statistical and subjective expert approach.

Place and Duration of Study: Mechanical & Refrigeration Consultation Expert, between December 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: Using the information approach and calculating the amount of information contained in the model of measuring a physical constant, we formulate a quantitative indicator for analyzing the results of the experiment.

Results: The appropriateness of applying the described approach is checked when studying the database when measuring various physical constants. The approach is applicable to the analysis of results obtained both for a long and a short period of time.

Conclusion: The information-theoretical approach allows us to formulate a universal indicator of the threshold mismatch between the model and the phenomenon, applicable to all scientific and technical fields in which the International System of Units (SI) is used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seepage and Recharge under a Stream-aquifer Unsaturated Connection

Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux

Physical Science International Journal, Page 20-42
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i330181

Most widely used integrated hydrologic models use outdated descriptions of the stream-aquifer flow exchange. Understandably they do it for practical reasons to avoid computational costs in large-scale regional studies. In this article we propose a largely analytical technique that (1) describes the situation when the connection is unsaturated while avoiding a lot of numerical work and at the same time remains quite physical, (2) has the capability to describe fluctuations between saturated and unsaturated connections, and (3) can be coupled easily with the numerical groundwater model that describes what happens in the broad system of cells away from the river(s). Essentially two separate methods are compared for the purpose of selecting the most practical of the two.

Open Access Original Research Article

Double Helix Wave-Particle Structures of Photon and Charged Elementary Particles. The Equation of Motion of the Particle with Both Intrinsic Spin and Double Helix Structure has the Same form as the Schrodinger Equation

Sennian Chen

Physical Science International Journal, Page 43-60
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i330182

Photon and charged elementary particles have many commonalities like constant spin, duality,  etc. The purpose of this paper is trying to find out why such particles have the commonalities and how to make the commonalities. The first part of this paper is to derive and prove that the photon is consisted of an energy packet and a closely connected circular polarized EM wave with much smaller energy. The energy packet is a thin piece of circular polarized EH field wrapped by a cylindrical side membrane with helical distributed . Double helix structure of field EH in the energy packet plus intrinsic speed c being proved makes almost all the basic properties of photon in the paper. The wave-particle properties in the structure of photon plays a roll together in the process of emission, absorption and interference. Such structure makes the photon to act as both a wave and a particle at the same time, not “exhibit different characters for different phenomenon”. It makes the dispute in the double slit experiment unnecessary. Charged elementary particles produced from a photon in the pair production will be proved in the paper it is split equally point to point from the photon. So the particles possess double helix structure of mass density and charge  (or ). The helically distributed charge  (or ) carries a circular polarized external E-field to move with the same velocity  (a wave really).  Of the charged elementary particle and  of this E-wave will be proved to satisfy the de Broglie Relation here. It naturally leads to the differential equation of motion of such particles mathematically as same as the Schrodinger equation. Such differential equation of motion for the non-relativistic particles will be proved it is for the circular polarized structure and wave. Difference between helical   (or ) and helical makes the charged elementary particles and photon distinguishable or undistinguishable by the magnetic B effect and to obey different statistics, F-D statistics or B-E statistics; and obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle or not. Since the spin direction of the photon and charged elementary particles are decided by the direction of helical structure, anyone of these particles can only possess a definite direction of spin, so the entanglement is like a pair of gloves disregard of how far the distance between them. Because a particle cannot locate at two positions or possess two different magnitudes of energy at the same time, (otherwise, the particle will split or move with different speed simultaneously), the particle itself can take only one basis state (e.g. at a point in the interference pattern or in an eigen state of the atom or molecule) any time. Therefore, the idea like wave function collapse, electron cloud and both alive and dead Schrodinger cat are no longer necessary. At last, it is a proof that there is a particular relativistic property of the charged elementary particles in the equal energy process. It will affect the physical and chemical process in the atom and molecule.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eigen-Solutions to Schrodinger Equation with Trigonometric Inversely Quadratic Plus Coulombic Hyperbolic Potential

Ituen B. Okon, Akaninyene D. Antia, Akaninyene O. Akankpo, Imeh. E. Essien

Physical Science International Journal, Page 61-75
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i330183

In this work, we applied parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov method to analytically obtained eigen solutions to Schrodinger wave equation with Trigonometric Inversely Quadratic plus Coulombic Hyperbolic Potential. We obtain energy-Eigen equation and total normalised wave function expressed in terms of Jacobi polynomial. The numerical solutions produce positive and negative bound state energies which signifies that the potential is suitable for describing both particle and anti-particle. The numerical bound state energies decreases with an increase in quantum state with fixed orbital angular quantum number 0, 1, 2 and 3. The numerical bound state energies decreases with an increase in the screening parameter and 0.5. The energy spectral diagrams show unique quantisation of the different energy levels. This potential reduces to Coulomb potential as a special case. The numerical solutions were carried out with algorithm implemented using MATLAB 8.0 software using the resulting energy-Eigen equation.

Open Access Review Article

Characterization of Ka-band Radar Observations for Different Rain Types over Akure, Nigeria

Joseph S. Ojo, Babatunde A. Alabi, Moses O. Ajewole

Physical Science International Journal, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i330180

Radar is a unique tool that can measure precipitation parameters over a large aerial coverage. Its application spans over study of climate change and radiowave propagation. Inter-relation between the rain parameters can also be derived with the height of radar especially on vertical profiling or aloft ground level. Hence effect of precipitation parameters can be assessed along the satellite propagation path with the help of space-borne radar. Satellite communication links operating at frequencies above 10 GHz are usually affected by hydrometeors especially rainfall. These effects are expected to be quite severe in the tropical region like Akure due to the nature of precipitation which is mainly convective and stratiform rain type. Therefore, information on vertical rain structure is important for precise quantitative estimation of precipitation. Thus, the focus of this work is to characterize the vertical profile of rain structures using vertically-pointing Ka-band Micro Rain Radar (MRR) at Akure, Nigeria. This has been achieved by using 2-year (2013 and 2014) data of rain parameters namely: rain rate, reflectivity, liquid water content and fall velocity obtained from MRR to determine the bright band heights under different rain types and its implications on satellite and radio waves propagation in this region. Rain rate in this region has been categorized into four groups namely: 0.02- 0.2 mm/h, 0.2- 2 mm/h, 2-40 mm/h, and 40 - 200 mm/h. The very low rain rate group is related to the stratiform rain types whereas highest rain rate groups are for the convective rain type. Study shows that parameters that are much associated with rain attained peak value at different height depending on the period of the year. The vertical profile of Z shows peak around 3 to 4.2 km height. The peak region is associated with the bright band height and contribution to the melting layer. This study revealed that the occurrence of bright band heights varies with rain types. The overall results will be useful for determining rain height needed for the prediction of rain attenuation in this region.