Open Access Original Research Article

The Greenhouse Effect Calculations by an Iteration Method and the Issue of Stratospheric Cooling

Antero Ollila

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i730199

The anthropogenic global warming theory is based on the greenhouse effect (GH), which is due to the longwave (LW) absorption by GH gases and clouds according to the IPCC. This LW radiation downward is the imminent cause for the GH effect increasing the surface temperature by 33°C. It has been shown that latent and sensible heating are essential parts of downward LW radiation and the total GH effect. In this study, an iteration method utilizing this basic GH effect mechanism has been applied to simulate the warming impacts of enhanced GH effect changes. The results are compatible with the Transient Climate Response (TCR) of 0.6°C. The issue of stratospheric cooling due to increased CO2 concentration has been calculated and analyzed. The stratospheric cooling effect is real but its impact on the Effective Radiative Forcing (ERF) has been shown to be negative and not positive as generally implied. The reason is that the decreased absorption of LW radiation in the atmosphere always decreases the GH effect. This result challenges the new concept of the ERF that is the sum of Instantaneous RF (IRF) and rapid adjustments as applied in General Climate Models (GCMs). If the stratospheric adjustment has the opposite effect, then the IRF values would be also wrongly calculated in these models. Two independent validation methods were applied to test the temperature impacts of CO2 concentration increases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Calibration of the High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Radioactive Source 60Co

Tania Afroz, Pretam K. Das, S. I. Chawdhury, Shudeb K. Roy

Physical Science International Journal, Page 19-32
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i730200

Aim of this work is to calibrate the high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy source 60Co. The radioactive source calibration is a very important part of the quality assurance program for dosimetry of brachytherapy source. The goal of this project is the calibration of HDR Brachytherapy source in radiation therapy is the measurement of the air kerma rate which required actual dose to deliver. The source calibration is an essential part of the quality assurance program for dosimetry of brachytherapy source. This research will help the patient who is involving brachytherapy treatment. HDR brachytherapy source 60Co is inserted directly or in close to the tumor. Most commonly using method for calibration of HDR brachytherapy source 60CO is well type ionization chamber. Calibration of the radioactive source 60Co brachytherapy source is very important for the treatment of cancer patient. We have got the variation between RAKR from TPS and measured Air Kerma Rate of 60Co brachytherapy source are 3.2% and 3.04% and which give very good agreement with the Air Kerma Rate (RAKR) is 5% (from BEBIG protocol, Germany). So, our results were satisfied for brachytherapy treatment. From these results, it must be concluded that, 60Co brachytherapy source is suitable for brachytherapy cancer treatment. It is very difficult to calculate treatment deliver dose without calibrating AKR of HDR brachytherapy source. It is very important to verify the calculated Air Kerma Rate by TPS Air Kerma Rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Information Content of the Model for Calculating the Finite Precision of Measurements

Boris Menin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i730201

Aims: We argue that the choice of a specific qualitative–quantitative set of variables in a model by a conscious observer fundamentally limits the achievable accuracy of the measurement process.

Place and Duration of Study: Mechanical & Refrigeration Consultation Expert, between January 2020 and July 2020.

Methodology: Using the concept of “finite information quantities” introduced by Gisin, we try to present it as a practical tool in science and engineering in calculating the proximity indicator of a model to the phenomenon being studied.

Results: The formulated metric (comparative uncertainty) allows us to set the optimal achievable uncertainty of the model and to confirm the impossibility of implementing the principle of infinite precision.

Conclusion: Any attempt to search for a universal physical theory must consider the uncertainty caused by the observer’s vision and the working of the human brain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamic Nano Clusters of Water on EVODROP Water

Ignat Ignatov, Georgi Gluhchev, Fabio Huether

Physical Science International Journal, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i730202

A research for nano clusters of electrochemically waters catholyte and anolyte was recently performed [1]. The actual study is connected with EVODROP water. Methods NES (Non-equilibrium Energy Spectrum) and DNES (Differential Non-equilibrium Energy Spectrum) are used for the study [2,3]. They allow the evaluation of hydrogen bonds energy. It is expected that these spectral analyses and mathematical models could help explaining the different effects of EVODROP water. Influence of different types of waters on the nervous system and anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects have been reported [4].

The device for the production of EVODROP water is invented by Fabio Huether. It transforms the tap water into alkaline one with a negative oxidation reduction potential (ORP) measured in millivolts (mV).

The study was performed of alteration of hardness of EVODROP water according tap water as control sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Edge Detection and Depth to Magnetic Source Estimation in Part of Central Nigeria

Mam D. Tawey, Abbass A. Adetona, Usman D. Alhassan, Abdulwaheed A. Rafiu, Kazeem A. Salako, Emmanuel E. Udensi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 54-67
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i730203

High-resolution aeromagnetic data covering an area of 24, 200 km2 in north central Nigeria has been acquired and analyzed with the aim of carrying out trend analysis, edge detection (structural delineation) and depth to magnetic source estimation using reduce to the pole (RTP), horizontal gradient magnitude (HGM), center for exploration targeting plug-in (CET), 3D Euler deconvolution and source parameter imaging (SPI) techniques. Trend analysis was applied to the RTP data to delineate structures that have dissected the area. The 3D Euler deconvolution and HGM were correlated by plotting the estimated Euler solutions for a structural index of one (SI=1) on HGM map and the resulting map produced have shown that both methods can contribute in the interpretation of the general structural framework of the study area. The structural delineation based on HGM and CET maps showed that two predominant trends (ENE-WSW) and (WNW-ENE) have affected the area. The trend/depth/contacts of these faults were classified into four groups: Faults <150 m, 150 m - 300 m, 300m - 450 m which are the most predominant fault system based on Euler solutions with a structural index of one (SI=1) and those deeper than 450 m while the result of source parameter imaging (SPI) revealed a depth to source varying from 58 m specifically for areas with shallow depth to the magnetic source to those from deeper source occurring at 588.153m depth especially the south-central portion and the south-eastern portion of the study area.