Open Access Original Research Article

“ hv-Energy Packet floating in Front of the Wave Beam” Hybrid Structure of Photon and its Self-Interference in the Single Photon Double-Slits Experiment

Sennian Chen

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530254

In the single photon double slits experiment, what mechanism makes the interference? Whether it is owing to the external factor or the photon has a special structure it can interfere photon itself to make the interference pattern? Because the photon is a quantum of EM radiation as Einstein proposed, so we start the study from an EM wave beam (an EM radiation). Under the demand of the symmetry and quantization, we found the wave beam is certainly circular polarized and covered by a side membrane. There is a pair of ± charges ±q and the circular tension Capture5.PNG distributes double helically along the side membrane. Quantization of charges requires Capture6.PNG ( k=2.3,...). Mechanical equilibrium among the helical distributed or, tension and the circular polarized EM field inside construct a steady structure to keep the quantized EM beam integrity, shape and size. Its energy hv concentrates in a cylindrical packet of radius R max and length , named -(energy) packet. With the aid of Einstein theory of spontaneous emission, we proved that the photon is consisted of the Capture7.PNG energy packet and accompany with a conical - (EM) wave beam; -packet floats in front of the -wave. It is such hybrid structure that makes photon self interference in the double slits experiment.


Open Access Original Research Article

Geophysical Delineation of Barite-Galena Mineralization Using Coupled Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Induced Polarization (IP) Techniques. A Case Study of Iyamitet, Cross River State, South-South, Nigeria

O. J. Airen, D. A. Babaiwa

Physical Science International Journal, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530255

A combined Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Induced Polarization (IP) techniques were carried out at Iyamitet, Cross-River State Nigeria with the aim of mapping the Barite-Galena mineralization zone within the area. Five traverses were established in orthogonal directions with length of 100 m. The traverses were established in grid format for better coverage of the study area and Dipole-Dipole electrode configuration was adopted for the data acquisition for both ER and IP. Res2Dinvx software was employed for the joint inversion of the data and the resulting 2D resistivity and chargeability images of the subsurface were interpreted qualitatively and semi-quantitatively to locate the mineralized zone. The result of the investigation revealed that the resistivity values of the suspected mineralized zones fall between 1023 ohm-m to 377599 ohm-m and the chargeability falls between 232 msec and 727 msec. The depth to the top of some of the mineralized zones is as shallow as 1.25 m and as deep as 19.8 m in other places. The results of the investigation have indicated the presence of the Barite-Galena ore within the area and this manifested as high resistivity and high chargeability zones along the traverses. The result of this investigation highlights the efficiency of combined geophysical techniques in locating mineralized zones in a basement area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metallic Composition Analysis of Crude Petroleum from Some Oil Fields in Ghana

Robert Wilson, Calvin Kwesi Gafrey, George Amoako, Benjamin Anderson

Physical Science International Journal, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530256

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical elements in crude petroleum using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic technique has attracted the attention of scientific world because it is fast, cheap, non-destructive and assurance in quality compared to other methods. Metallic element characterisation of crude petroleum is important in the petrochemical industry because it determines rock reservoir properties, the technology needed for extraction and refinery process, hence an exciting field that calls for research. X-ray fluorescence method was used for metallic composition analysis of four rundown crude petroleum samples (SB-2, SB-4, TB-2 and TB-1) from three oil fields (Saltpond, TEN and Jubilee). It was conducted at the National Nuclear Research Institute of Ghana. Analysis of the four samples concluded that oil field maturity decreases orderly from Saltpond, Jubilee and TEN. Vanadium-nickel ratios for each crude petroleum sample was less than 0.5, indicating that both Saltpond and Tano sedimentary rocks are of marine organic origin. Higher concentration levels of rare earth metal elements (scandium and yttrium) in the Saltpond sedimentary basin compared to Tano sedimentary rock suggest seismic effect of McCarthy Hills on Saltpond Basin. The strong negative correlation between the vanadium-nickel ratio (predictor) and scandium concentration (dependent) among the three oil fields implies that scandium concentration can equally be used to characterise the oil fields just as the vanadium-nickel ratios.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Radionuclides from Soil to Onion at Johor and Perak, Malaysia

N. M. Yussuf, M. A. Saeed, H. Wagiran, I. Hossain

Physical Science International Journal, Page 30-36
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530257

In this report, the radiological survey of radioactivity measurements in soil and onion and their mobility is carried out which is very important in the environment and several scientific fields. The measurements about the concentrations of activity in soil, leaves and bulbs for onion in the location of Johor and Perak, Malaysia have been carried out using neutron activation analysis (NAA) of TRIGA MARK II research reactor facilities at Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Malaysia. The transfer factors (TFs) of 238U, 232Th and 40K from 6 different natural background soils are studied from soil to onion under natural field conditions. The TFs for onion leaves and bulb are in the range of (6.01-79.2) x 10-3, (1.21-61.4) x 10-3, (1.012-4.265) x 10-1 and 0.028-0.334, 0.017-0.293 and (0.908 -3.685) x10-1for 238U, 232Th, and 40K respectively. There exists a linearity correlation between the dose rate as well as activity concentration of the soils. The observed transfer factor of onion bulbs was usually higher than in leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Study of Polyethylene Fusion by Scheffler Solar Concentrator

Dieudonné Dabilgou, Salifou Ouedraogo, Adelaide Lareba Ouedraogo, Thierry Sikoudouin Maurice Ky, Bruno Korgo, Sié Kam, Dieudonné Joseph Bathiebo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 37-48
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i530258

Aims: The present work is the use of Scheffler technology to melt plastic waste to produce composite materials using an oven type receiver. The composite material in this study contains polyethylene as a matrix and sand as reinforcement.

Study Design: The fusion temperature of polyethylene is about 200°C and is obtained by solar concentration. The experimental plastic melting unit in Saaba (latitude 12.38° N; longitude -1.43° E), Burkina Faso, uses two 8 m² Scheffler concentrators sharing a cubic receiver. Three types of mirrors with a reflectivity of at least 90% are used as reflecting facets to equip the Scheffler dishes at the site.

Methodology: The thermal behavior of the receiver is analyzed experimentally. Temperatures are measured on the inner and outer walls as well as the internal air temperature with 5 K-type thermocouples. When the fusion temperature is reached on the inside, we introduce the plastic waste which has been previously washed, crushed, dried and weighed.

Results: The installed model obtained an average energy of 1.80 kW at the receiver and an average internal temperature of 251.15°C for an average irradiance of 623 W/m² during the no-load test. During the load test, an average energy of 1.34 kW and an internal temperature of 206.4°C were reached for an average irradiance of 473 W/m² and an optical efficiency of 56%. This test led to the production of two pavers of the composite material matrix with 2.2 kg of plastic waste.

Conclusion: These results show that the profiles of the primary reflector, tracking system, and tilt axis are accurate and the maximum concentrated solar flux converges on the absorbing surfaces of the receiver. The tempered panes of the absorbing surfaces is more transparent and less emissive. Thus our device contributes to the valorization of plastic waste by using a non-polluting energy source.