Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal and Frequency Stability of Dielectric Ceramic Ba6-3xNd8+2xTi18O54 (X=0.15, 0.25)

Chian Heng Lee, Jumiah Hassan, Mansor Hashim, Raba’ah Syahidah Aziz, Norlaily Mohd Saiden

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1318-1325
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/12908

A new dielectric material, barium neodymium titanate (BNT) ceramic can provide good thermal and frequency stability on the dielectric properties. The synthesis of BNT ceramics with x=0.15 and 0.25 was carried out using wet solid state method. The ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction to identify the phase. The shifting of XRD peaks revealed higher content of neodymium ions inside the compound. Surface morphology of the ceramics was determined using FESEM. Different compositions influenced the grain growth of the ceramics. BNT ceramics with higher neodymium content showed higher porosity, and higher resistance to shrinkage. The dielectric properties at low frequency from 40 Hz to 1 MHz were measured using Impedance Analyzer. The polarization effect inside the material was discussed and compared. BNT ceramics with x=0.15 has higher dielectric constant. These BNT ceramics showed frequency and thermal stability with respect to the dielectric constant.


Open Access Original Research Article

Finite-Time Combination-Combination Synchronization of Hyperchaotic Systems and its Application in Secure Communication

Jianbin He, Jianping Cai

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1326-1339
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/12476

Global finite time synchronization of a class of combination-combination chaotic systems via master-slave coupling is investigated. A nonlinear feedback controller and a continuous generalized linear state-error feedback controller with simple structure are introduced in the synchronization scheme. They are applied to a practical master-slave synchronization scheme for combination-combination systems, which consist of the Chen chaotic system, hyperchaotic Chen system and hyperchaotic Lorenz system. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the new synchronization criteria. Based on the proposed synchronization, a scheme of secure communication is then established and the continuous and digital signals are transmitted using the chaotic mask method. Finally, simulation examples show that the transmitted message can be recovered successfully at the receiver end.


Open Access Original Research Article

NaCl, KCl and SrCl2 Doping Effect on Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of KDP Crystal

P. S. Ambhore, S. K. Devade, A. B. Gambhire, G. G. Muley

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1340-1350
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/5778

The effect of NaCl, KCl and SrCl2 doping on the crystal structure, optical transmission, and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is investigated. Single crystals of pure NaCl, KCl and SrCl2 doped KDP were grown by solution growth technique from aqueous solutions. The crystal structure was studied by powder X-ray diffraction. Doped crystals possess higher optical transparency than pure KDP crystals. The SHG efficiency of doped crystals was found more than pure KDP crystal. The grown crystals were subjected to the photoluminescence, atomic absorption and FT-IR spectroscopic study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ultrasonic Characterization of Aqueous Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP)

Sugandha V. Khangar, Omprakash P. Chimankar

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1351-1357
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/11487

Aim: Various thermo acoustic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (ba), relaxation time(t), acoustic impedance (z), classical absorption ( ), free length (Lf), isothermal compressibility (bi), volume expansivity (α) and Moelwyn-Hughes parameter (C1) of PVP  solution were obtained from the measurement of ultrasonic velocity (u) , density(ρ) and viscosity(η).

Methodology: All these measurements were made by Pulse Echo technique at different concentration of the range 0.05 to 0.3wt. % and at 288K, 293K, 298K, 303K and 308K. The ultrasonic velocity (u) was observed to vary linearly with concentration of PVP solution.

Results: This indicates the single phase formation and the compatibility of aqueous PVP. The compatibility is due to the linear chain structure of the polymer. Adiabatic compressibility and free length decreases linearly with increase in concentration of aqueous PVP solution indicates that the strong interactions, association and non-dominance of PVP in water, because there is no abrupt change in the variation at any concentration. The increase in acoustic impedance (z) of aqueous PVP solution indicates that there is a strong molecular interaction between the polymer and the solvent molecules and the structural arrangement may be affected. This change in the structure of solvent or solution is a result of hydrogen bond formation and structure making property of PVP in solution.

Conclusion: Due to linear nature of ultrasonic parameters like ultrasonic velocity, adiabatic compressibility, etc. in PVP solution indicates that this PVP water soluble polymer can be used as tablet binder in pharmaceutical industries.


Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Double Mould Vibration– Compactor Block Moulding Machine for Developing Countries

I. T. Adejugbe, O. K. Ukoba, A. S. Idowu, A. T. Oyelami, S. O. O. Olusunle

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1358-1369
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/5813

This work looked at the design and manufacturing of a low cost and easy to maintain vibration-compaction block moulding machine that can accommodate two different sizes of mould 9 inch (0.46×0.23×0.22m)  and 6 inch blocks(0.46×0.15×0.22m). It is borne out of the desire to solve housing problem in developing countries through reduction in the cost of the building materials like the block. It was designed to compact sandcrete block with strength of 0.99N/mm2 which is the same as those made from the universal block making machines but performed better when water absorption was less than 7%. It can produce about 400 blocks in an 8hours working day. It therefore occupies about 1/3rd the space taken and cost of N50,000 which is ¼ of the price of Universal Block Maker. The Vibrator Compactor Block Moulding Machine (VCBMM) was also used to produce sandcrete blocks which had a strength of 0.95N/mm when tested. The water absorption tests carried out on the sandcrete blocks absorbed 6.5 times more water. Therefore, the use of the sandcrete blocks from the VCBMM is recommended for use in all regions. The VCBMM was designed to be highly versatile and to be power driven by diesel motors. Provision was made on the sandcrete mould for sliding plates to be introduced into the mould holes so that 6 inch blocks and 9inch blocks are produced interchangeably.


Open Access Original Research Article

Variable Mass Quantum Harmonic Oscillator; Exact Solvability and Isospectral Potentials

M. Tchoffo, M. Vubangsi, L. C. Fai

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1370-1382
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9756

By imposing a particular constraint of solvability on the Liouville normal form of the BenDaniel-Duke type variable mass Schr¨odinger equation, we have derived a class of solvable potentials and harmonic oscillator type solutions for the system. The method has been shown to be applicable in finding isospectral potentials for an infinite possibility of position-dependent mass distributions as well as in determining the effective mass profile for a given effective interaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Cross Section for Different Fusion Reactions in Terms of Lattice Effects in Solid State Internal Conversion in Crystalline Palladium Environment

S. N. Hosseinimotlagh, M. Shahamiri

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1383-1399
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/9686

In this article, the cross section of different fusion reactions is determined: D(d,p)T, D(d,γ)4He,T(d,n)4He and D(p,γ)3He by considering the lattice effect in internal conversion of solid state in  palladium environment which is a face-cubic-centered-structured metal. Fusionable particles are solved as sublattice; these particles contribute in fusion reaction in palladium environment. Fusion reaction is generated by flux of incoming fusionable particles. In order to enter the lattice effect in the fusion cross section for above reactions, It need to use The Bloch function for the initial and final state of three- body system. The three - body system consists of the host lattice, sublattice and incident particles. Then the new fusion cross sections are compared with ordinary ones. Finally, the internal conversion coefficient is obtained with regarding the lattice effect. The authors strongly discuss that the lattice effect in solid state internal conversion must be considered until the experimental data of fusion cross section have a good justification with theoretical hypothesis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Electron Energy Levels for a Finite Elliptical Quantum Wire in a Transverse Magnetic Field

Xiu- Zhi Duan, Guang- Xin Wang, Chun- Rui Chang

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1400-1412
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/12576

We investigate the electron ground state energy, the first excited energy and the electron density of probability within the effective-mass approximation for a finite strain elliptical wire. A magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the wire axis. The results are obtained by diagonalizing a Hamiltonian for a wire with elliptical edge. The electron levels are calculated as functions of the ellipse parameter of the wire with different values of the applied magnetic field. For increasing magnetic field the electron has its energy enhanced. The electron energy decreases as the elliptical wire size increases. The density of probability distribution in the wire with different size in the presence of a magnetic field has been calculated also. The smaller elliptical wire size can effectively draw electron deviation from the axis. Calculated ground state energy is compared with that one obtained in previous work.


Open Access Original Research Article

Basic Laws of EM Theory

Branko Mišković

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1413-1426
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/10647

Instead of electric charge, as the basic substance of EM theory, its static potential, as some energetic fluid, in the dielectric, non-resistive and reactive medium, is here taken as the starting quantity. All the remaining EM quantities are thus defined in the succession, by the standard differential equations, with algebraic relations and central laws derived as their formal consequences. Not only that majority of the former results are confirmed, but some of them are completed, rationally interpreted and mutually related. On the other hand, a few formal concepts appear as inadequate or excessive at least.