Open Access Original Research Article

Unsettled Problems of Second-Order Quantum Theories of Elementary Particles

E. Comay

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i730267

The physical community agrees that the variational principle is a cornerstone of a quantum fields theory (QFT) of an elementary particle. This approach examines the variation of the action of a Lagrangian density whose form is \(S = \int d^4 x \mathcal {L}(\psi,\psi_{,\mu}).\) The dimension of the action \(S\) and \(d^4x\) prove that the quantum function \(\psi\) of any specific Lagrangian density \(\mathcal {L}(\psi,\psi_{,\mu})\) has a definite dimension. This evidence determines the results of new consistency tests of QFTs. This work applies these tests to several kinds of quantum functions of a QFT of elementary particles. It proves that coherent results are derived from the standard form of quantum electrodynamics which depends on the Dirac linear equation of a massive charged particle and Maxwell theory of the electromagnetic fields. In contrast, contradictions stem from second-order quantum theories of an elementary particle, such as the Klein-Gordon equation and the electroweak theory of the \(W^\pm\) boson. An observation of the literature that discusses the latter theories indicates that they do not settle the above-mentioned crucial problems. This issue supports the main results of this work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Performance Analysis of B1-3.5mm Burner Model of Fasobio-15 Biodigester Biogas Cookstoves

Noufou Bagaya, Issaka Ouedraogo, Daniel Windé Nongué Koumbem, Gwladys Wendwaoga Sandwidi, Florent Pelega Kieno

Physical Science International Journal, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i730268

In Burkina Faso, finding wood for cooking is still a headache for rural households due to the advancing desert. Here, we try to bring a new way for farmers who already have a biodigester and convince those who are reluctant to adopt this work to reduce their dependence on wood. For this purpose, a characterization of the energy performance of biogas stoves is carried out based on the three-phase water heating test protocol called Water Boiling Test (WBT). The fuel used in the study is the biogas produced by a batch biodigester fed with pig manure. The analysis of the produced biogas shows a methane content of 60% and maximum hydrogen sulfide of 400ppm. The heat balance shows a loss of 11% in the walls of the cookstove and about 36% in the flue gas. Thus the energy performance of the furnace is estimated at 53%, a combustion rate of 6.4 L /min and the average boiling time is 50 minutes. Given these results, we suggest that households use biogas fuel and the B1-3.5mm burner in the cookstove as a replacement for the other burners. We intend to carry out a controlled cooking test on this stove, a modeling of the biogas production and its consumption in this type of burner.

Open Access Original Research Article

If We Postulate Atomic and ± Subatomic Particles are Size Particles and Satisfy the Schrodinger Equation, what will be the Inferences?

Sennian Chen

Physical Science International Journal, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i730269

In quantum mechanics, atomic and subatomic particles are treated as waves. The idea of wave function and wave function collapse brought us great success but left us different opinions. Is there a way it can avoid the different opinions and give us more? We try to postulate directly that these particles are size particles and satisfy the Schrodinger equation. Start from the general solution of free particle’s Schrodinger equation, we will prove: (i) To satisfy the Schrodinger equation, the size particle must possess a circular polarized structure of the plane vector(a complex number)like the electric vector E in the circular polarized light; its modular is mass density. (ii) These particles fall into two categories: they have the same sign of negative charge e or positive charge e, but different directions of mass density and charged helices, like left handed electron and right handed electron etc. (iii) The spin of the particle has its mechanism, it is formed by the motion of the helices structure of mass plus intrinsic self rotation. (iv) Negative charge e (or positive charge e) distributes double helically on the particle side boundary. It produces and carries a circular polarized electric field E with the same velocity of the particle. It forms a circular polarized E-wave. This wave will be proved is just the de Broglie wave and the E-wave function is just the particle’s state function in quantum mechanics. Such charged particle is consisted of the particle itself and the de Broglie wave; they form a particle-wave hybrid structure. The E- wave exhibits all possible states with possibility in the atom, molecule or interference pattern; as for the particle itself, it cannot split into two or move with two velocity at the same time. It can only locate at one basic state any moment, such as in an eigen state of the atom or at a point in the interference pattern. It is the self-interference of the hybrid structure of the particle makes the one after one single particle form double-slits interference.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Atmospheric Turbidity Parameters in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Omodara E. Obisesan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i730270

This study estimated the levels of atmospheric turbidity in Ile-Ife, a tropical location in the Southwest of Nigeria, from November, 2017 to March, 2019. This was with the aim to quantify the degree of atmospheric cleanliness of the study location. The methods of estimation used are: the Angstrom turbidity parameters (α and β), Linke turbidity factor (TL) and horizontal visibility (VH). The values of α and β range between 0.6 and 1.4; 0.10 and 0.91 respectively. The values obtained for TL varied between 1 and 7 while visibility values ranged between 2 and 14 km. Maximum values of β and TL (corresponding to low values of VH) were obtained in the dry season (particularly in the months of January and February) while the lowest values of the same methods of estimation (corresponding to high values of VH) were recorded in the wet season (specifically in August and September). The elevated turbidity observed in the dry season was linked to episodes of Harmattan dust storms usually experienced at the study location. The study concluded that a polluted atmosphere dominates the study location especially in the dry season as indicated by the different atmospheric turbidity parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Radionuclide Analysis on Crude Petroleum from Some Oil Fields in Ghana

Calvin Kwesi Gafrey, Robert Wilson, George Amoako, Benjamin Anderson

Physical Science International Journal, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i730271

The petroleum industries benefit immensely from developing scientific processes and procedures that determine characteristics of crude oils and distinct them. This is because crude oils are acquired from various geological sources and each sedimentary rock has its own distinct chemical properties that affect extraction, refinery and environmental safety. Extraction of crude oils may result in exposure of some radionuclide elements from sedimentary rocks into the environments. This nuclear exposure may affect lives and can cause ecological imbalance. Applications of gamma emission spectroscopy has grown rapidly around the world because of its accurate measurement and precision. Such technique has not been applied for the study of naturally occurring radionuclide materials (NORMs) in crude oils from the active oil fields in Ghana. The study employed the use of gamma spectroscopic technique for characterization of crude oil samples from Jubilee Oil Field, Tweneboa Enyenra Ntomme (TEN) Oil Field and Saltpond Oil Field. The technique was applied on four crude oil samples. The results of this paper actually report on radionuclide concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials in four crude samples using a Gamma-Ray spectrometer. Three radionuclides, radium-226 (226 Ra), thorium-232 (232 Th) and potassium-40 (40 K), were identified from each crude sample (JF, TF SF-1 and SF-2). It was observed that samples from Saltpond Oil Field estimated the highest activity concentration and the least was crude oil from Jubilee Oil Field. The activity concentration values were far less than the approved values by International Atomic Energy Agency for basic safety standard. Therefore, the radionuclides activity concentration values of crude oil samples from Jubilee, TEN, and Saltpond oil fields were within the basic safety standards exemption levels of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The crude oils from the oil fields can therefore be considered safe to handle. Also, the results of the activity concentrations from the sample used for this study indicate that crude petroleum from the oil fields may relatively have little nuclear activity impact to ecology and human health. The result of this study may be adopted by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Petroleum Stakeholders of Ghana for development of petroleum geo-radionuclides radiation safety measures.