Open Access Original Research Article

Annual and Semiannual Variation in the Ionospheric F2-Layer Electron Density over the Indian Zone and Effect of Solar Activity on It

Minakshi Chamua, Pradip Bhuyan, Saradi Bora

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i330312

In situ measurement carried out by the Retarding potential Analyzer (RPA) on board SROSS C2 and ROCSAT during 1995 to 2003 covering ascending and descending periods of solar cycle 23 over Indian equatorial and low latitude were used to study the annual and semiannual variation of electron density at the topside F region. The ‘Semiannual anomaly’ which represent the electron density in equinox (March, April, September and October) is greater than that at solstice (May, June, July, August, November, December, January and February). The ‘annual anomaly’ which represents the electron density in winter (November, December, January, February) is higher than that in summer (May, June, July, August).  The analysis has been carried out for the geomagnetic equator and ±10o magnetic latitudes. Observations reveal the existence of an equatorial asymmetry during daytime (10:00 – 14:00 hrs.) with higher electron density in spring (March, April) than in autumn (September, October) for both ascending and descending leg of the solar cycle. At the peak of the solar cycle, the density becomes equal for both equinoxes. Nighttime (22:00 – 00:00 hrs.) density in autumn is higher than that in spring for the ascending half of the solar cycle, becomes equal for both the equinoxes around the peak of the solar cycle. In the descending half the vernal density becomes higher than the autumnal density. The periodograms obtained from a Fourier analysis of the daytime average density shows that the annual variation is dominant over the semiannual variations for low to moderate solar activity whereas the semiannual peak becomes dominant over annual peak for high solar activity irrespective of the latitudes. At night, however, latitudinal differences have been observed. The annual variation is stronger than the semiannual variation at 10o N for low to moderate solar activity while for high solar activity the situation reverses. At 10o S and the magnetic equator, the annual variation is dominant for all levels of solar activity. Amplitude of the annual variation is higher in winter compared to that in summer. The physical and dynamical processes responsible for the observed annual and semi-annual trends in topside density will be identified and discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Dust Charging and Asymmetric Ion Flow on the Dust Lattice Mode in Complex Plasma

Saurav Bhattacharjee

Physical Science International Journal, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i330313

mechanism among dust grains immersed in plasma has been reported theoretically in presence of asymmetric ion flow and dynamical charging of dust grains. The ion flow induced particle-wake interaction in addition to repulsive Yukawa type of interaction found to play a significant role in tuning the coupling strength between charged grains and hence the vibrational mode. The transition in coupling strength is obtained as a characteristic of ion flow speed and grain size. The results show a damping in strength of interaction in presence of dynamical charging of dust. The type of interaction shows a mixed phase of Wake-Yukawa in subsonic regime and highly Yukawa dominating phase in supersonic regime of ion flow. The results are significant for understanding the thermodynamic properties and the phase behavior of colloidal systems and nano-crystals. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Mass under the Membrane Theory of Gravitation

Stefan von Weber, Alexander von Eye

Physical Science International Journal, Page 25-38
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i330314

The Cosmic Membrane theory of gravitation (CM) implies Newton’s absolute space. We identify the homogeneous vector field used by us since 1994 with the Higgs-field as source of the heavy mass. Following Randall and Sundrum, the introduction of the wafting layer outside the membrane solves the issue of the mobility of particles in a super-strong membrane. Starting with Feynman’s radius of excess, we obtain a depth of space of WRS = 1.432×106 [m] of the gravitational funnel at the edge of sun. Using Chandrasekhar’s gravitational energy, we obtain the tension F0 of the membrane as F0=1.820×1019 [N/m2], and the vertical vector field acceleration AVFV, acting perpendicularly from the fourth spatial dimension on the membrane, with AVFV=1.148×105 [m/s2]. The horizontal vector field acceleration AVFH, i.e., inside the wafting layer, is AVFH=1.330×105 [m/s2], and acts as acceleration a=AVFH w’ with w’ the being slope of the membrane. The mass of the moved membrane in a moving gravitational funnel behaves as an inert mass, but yields a numerical value that is too small to explain the equivalence of heavy and inert mass. Assuming speed of light c for transversal gravitational waves, we obtain a first estimation of the mass distribution ρsurf of the membrane. The clay lump model of the relativistic increase of mass follows the assumption that the energy of the accelerating photons will act again half as mass and half as kinetic energy at the accelerated particle. Our result equals exactly Einstein’s SR result.

Open Access Original Research Article

Raman Effect Studies of Electrochemical Synthesized Quartz Crystal of Poly-O-Phenylenediamine for Piezoelectric Application

Ndukwe O. Francis, A. O. C. Nwokoye, E. U. Amalu, O. O. Anyanor

Physical Science International Journal, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i330315

Microelectronics arose from the desire for miniaturization of electrical devices, while Nano-electronics arose from subsequent study. Researchers have developed and modeled energy harvesting technologies based on the conservation law of energy over the last two decades to produce an alternative power source for small size electronics (nano-electronics) and low power electronic devices that can replace traditional power sources like batteries. The ambient energy, which is typically in the form of solar, thermal, vibrational, and other types, can be converted into a variety of different forms. Electrical energy can be harvested from vibrational energy in materials and other man-made materials using piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrostatic, and nano-electric generators. Poly-o-phenylenediamine (PoPD) Quartz (silicon dioxide) Crystals were electrochemically produced at varied percentage ratios of silicon dioxide and Poly-O-Phenylenediamine samples in this study (sample A represents 20:80 percent, sample B with 50:50 percent, and sample C has 60:40 percent respectively). The Raman Effect and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis were used to characterize the material and forecast its Piezoelectric effect. All of the samples have their maximum peak record at Raman shift of 2872cm-1, however the Raman intensity varies. Sample A produced a peak intensity of 1250, Sample B produced a peak intensity of 1700, and Sample C produced a peak intensity of 2700. As the doping concentration of silicon dioxide increases, the Raman peak intensity for Poly-o-Phenylenediamine doped with silicon dioxide increases. The SEM images show that Sample A forms a fine cluster with little or no distinctive morphology, Sample B is ball-shaped with grain-like structure, and Sample C shows a flat, thin leaf-like shape. From sample A to C, the intra-particle separation rises, which corresponds to an increase in SiO2 concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Near-Earth Surface Temperature on Soil Temperature at 5 cm Depth

O. C. Adebayo, Y. B. Lawal, O. R. Obasi-Oma, J. S. Ojo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 45-54
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i330316

The research investigates the effects of ground surface temperature (air temperature) on soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm. The study covers a period of fourteen (14) months from May 2010 to June 2011 in Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. With the aid of an automatic weather station, temperature readings were taken at a depth of 5 cm below the soil surface at five (5) minute intervals daily. It was also observed that many analyses of soil temperature are based on the theories of heat flow and energy balance. The study reveals that surface temperature has a weak effect on soil temperature. The best correlation coefficient obtained for the study period is about 0.56 with a quadratic equation of order 2 at 5% significance level. This implies that air temperature cannot be solely used to predict soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm. A study of diurnal variation reveals that air temperature is usually higher than soil temperature during the day, and vice versa. The study also revealed that surface and soil temperatures are generally lower during the wet months when compared with the dry months. The wet season average daily temperatures are 23.42oC and 27.69oC for air and soil while the corresponding dry season values are 33.92oC and 30.91oC respectively. The results are recommended for agricultural purposes such as determination of soil and environmental conditions for crop production.