Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variability of foE and Nocturnal Winter Anomaly in E-layer during Solar Cycles 21 and 22 at the Ouagadougou Station

Sawadogo Gédéon, Nakolemda Roger, Konaté Moustapha, Nanéma Emmanuel

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i230307

This paper aims to study the variability of foE during two solar cycles 21 (SC21) and 22 (SC22) at Ouagadougou station (lat = 12.4°N, long = 358.5°E, local time (LT) = universal time (UT)), to give visibility on the behavior of foE in this station. We used International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2016) to collect data from five (5) quiet days of each characteristic month of each season. This study reveals that in this station located at the ionospheric equator, the variability of foE follows the evolution of the sun intensity during the day. There is a correlation between foE and the solar cycle phase, the season, and the time of day. During the day [0500 LT-1900LT], the foE profile does not show a winter anomaly, contrary to what is observed in the F2 layer  at the minimum and maximum  SC21 and SC22. On the other hand, a nocturnal winter anomaly was observed related to that observed in the F2 layer in the same periods. The study of foE at the Ouagadougou station will allow ionospheric physicists to have visibility on the seasonal variability of foE in this station.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of the Average Temperature of the Interior Atmosphere of a Habitable Cell Made of Foamed Concrete in Burkina Faso

Adelaïde Lareba Ouédraogo, Etienne Malbila, Dieudonné Dabilgou, Fati Oumarou Amadou, Souleymane Ouédraogo, Salifou Ouédraogo, Adamah Messan, Sié Kam, Dieudonné Joseph Bathiebo, Florent Pèlèga Kiéno, Philippe Blanchart

Physical Science International Journal, Page 11-24
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i230308

Aims: The energy domain is responsible for the production of many gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants, strongly contributing to climate change. The provision of bioclimatic habitats to households is therefore necessary since it will contribute to the reduction of energy consumption. This work consists in making a study of the thermal behavior of a habitat designed with foamed concrete (FC) in order to evaluate its thermal performance for the improvement of its thermal comfort and to compare its average internal temperature with those of other materials.

Study Design: A calculation model developed under the COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3a software was used to simulate the thermal behavior of a foamed concrete habitat. The meteorological data used are those of Ouagadougou in the month of April (hottest month in Burkina Faso) on April 15, 2019 (with April 15, the hottest day of the year 2019)

Methodology: The temperatures of each side of the walls were determined. Moreover, the study of the influence of the thickness of the walls on the average internal temperature made it possible to determine an optimal thickness. Then, the thermal phase shift, the thermal amplitude reduction and the damping factor were carried out.

Results: The results obtained in the weather conditions of April in Ouagadougou, lead to an average internal temperature of the building of about 304 K, for a wall thickness of 17.5 cm. There is a thermal phase shift of 8 hours, and a reduction in thermal amplitude of 9°C or a damping factor of 8.6%. The maximum average internal temperature of the foamed concrete was compared with those of the cement block, the CEB, the adobe, the CLB which present respectively 311 K; 309.2K; 309K; 308.5K.

Conclusion: A building constructed with foamed concrete has a low average internal temperature compared to cinderblock, CEB, adobe and CLB. Thus, this material makes it possible to provide more thermal comfort and can be used for the construction of habitats with good energy efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radionuclide Transfer Ratio from Soil to Crops in Selected Fertilized Farms and Estimation of Its Health Risk in Rivers State of Nigeria

A. Nwii Abayiga, G. O. Avwiri, C. P. Ononugbo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i230309

The study was carried out to investigate the transfer ratio of radionuclide from soil to crops of the selected fertilized farmers in Rivers State Nigeria. Using a well calibrated sodium iodide (NaI) detector. The activity concentrations of 40K, 234U, and 232Th in crops and soils of the selected fertilized farmers of Rivers State have been determined. The activity concentration of radionuclides of 40K, 234U, and 232Th were all higher than its respective control values, which show that the fertilized farms contain more radionuclide than the unfertilized farms(control) and this may be due to the long use of inorganic fertilizers during cultivation on the selected Agricultural Development programme farms (Fertilized Farms). This variation may be due to differences in organic matter, soil content and type of soil of the selected farms. The mean transfer factor obtained is of the order 234U < 232TH < 40K which shows that activity concentration of natural radio isotopes within the study area are high and also the rate at which the radionuclides are transfer from soil to crops is also high. The result obtained show that there is high transfer ratio of radionuclide from soil to crops of the selected fertilized farms and this requires that the uses of NPK fertilizers should be under radiological control for consumption safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relativistic Effect of Non Rigid in Motion: Volume Contraction in All Directions; Space around it Warped

Runsheng Tu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 34-46
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i230310

Ignoring the internal structure of moving objects and treating them as rigid bodies is not only out of practice but also inconsistent with the spirit of scientific exploration. To change this status quo, consider the relativistic effects of real object motion. Consider the mass-velocity relationship as an initial mechanism to discuss the effect of velocity on the space around an object and on the volume of the object. The relativistic mass-velocity relationship and the relationship between atomic radius and mass together constitute one of the physical mechanisms for the volume contraction of objects due to motion. A series of new conclusions are obtained, such as: the space distortion of a moving system with mass due to inertial motion at ultra-high speed, and even the generation of neutron like stars or black holes; the 3D contraction of objects due to motion; Because the empty space can neither bear nor exert force, in terms of mechanical performance, space and object are always independent of each other, and space cannot move (at most, its motion can only be set subjectively); Even maintaining inertial motion does not guarantee that space is flat, and special relativity can only be approximated at best. It shakes the position of the theoretical criterion of "covariance under Lorentz transformation". It lays a solid foundation for transforming the view of relative space-time into the view of relative absolute space-time and giving birth to the theory of relative absolute.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geoelectrical and Geotechnical Investigations for Development of Superstructures at Nkpologwu Proposed Judiciary Site, Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria

G. N. Egwuonwu, I. A. Okwonna, P. K. Okpala

Physical Science International Journal, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i230311

Geophysical and Geotechnical surveys were integrally carried out at a proposed Judiciary site for civil development of superstructures in Nkpologwu, Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. Nkpologwu falls within 7 ̊06̍ '40” E to 7 ̊08 ' 42” E longitudes and 5 ̊56' 76” N to 5 ̊57' 78” N latitudes at about 320 m above the mean sea level. The study is aimed at interpreting the lithology of the subsurface at shallow depths in order to accentuate the competence of soil formations at the foundation depths of the site. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data were acquired in the geophysical survey while various geotechnical tests were carried out to ascertain the bearing capacity of the site’s subsoil. The registered data from the VES survey were processed with WINGLET software hence, geoelectric models of at least four layers were obtained. Characterized by apparent resistivity values in the range of about 1524 to 96,561 Ωm. Geotechnical results showed values of 10.4% to 12.4% OMC, 1.95 to 2.01g/cm3 MDD, 30.0 to 39.0% CBR, 21.0 to 30.5% particle size distribution, <12% PI and <35%  LL Atterberg limit for soil samples within foundation depths at the site. Combined interpretation of the surveys showed that at foundation depths at the site were predominantly sand, laterite and sandstones delineated and these were found to meet the required standard of the Federal Ministry of works and housing for construction of superstructures. Therefore, the study provides the knowledge of the lithology and soil competence at foundation depths for future civil construction works at the site.