##### The Application of Little’s Effect and Ferrochemistry for New Approach for Extraction of LIOH from Salar Geothermal Brines

Reginald B. Little

Physical Science International Journal, Page 43-58
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i1230301

A prior theory of Ferrochemistry and its Laws for Little’s Rules 1, 2 and 3 are applied to systems of nuclear spins and nucleon angular momenta for using applied static magnetic fields, static electric fields, ultrasonic vibrations, and radio frequency waves for stimulating, separating and extracting various cations from geothermal, salar brines.  Down the group and families of alkali, alkaline earth and halide ions, considerations are given of variations in e- e- --- e- e-  --- e- interactions and e- e- --- nuclear interactions from s to p to d to f subshells with complex inter and intra orbital, subshell and shell interactions.  The unique symmetry of s orbital for reversibly collapsing on nuclei and vice versa nuclei fractionally, reversibly fissing for nuclear pressures into s orbitals and from s subshells into outer subshells of higher azimuthal quanta are given.  The alterations of the electronic shells and variations among elements and their isotopes are disclosed to cause the novel mechanics for separating the alkali cations and lithium, specifically.  An analogy is draw between extractions of Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ cations in graphene-nanodiamond nanofiltering membrane and variations of these ions in ion channels of brain and nervous systems in animals and humans for determining new mechanics of diseases like mania, depression, and bipolar disorder with treatments by Li+ is considered.  Advantages of this graphene, nanodiamond nanofilter relative to current methods are considered.  Details of the mechanics on basis of varying sizes of s orbitals, symmetries of s orbitals, varying rotation rates of the cations, varying spins of the cations, and varying nuclear magnetic moments (NMMs) of the cations are presented.  The originality of the author’s theory of invoking NMMs for differing interactions is contrasted with prior nuclear spin effects of prior investigators. Complex spin and angular momenta interactions of the cations, anions, protons and halides are considered.  A novel method of using the static magnetic field, static electric fields, radio frequency waves and ultrasounds for selective precipitations of LiOH (s) with retarding Li2CO3 (s) is presented. The ultrasounds and radio waves may agitate in operation to prevent clogging of the graphene/nanodiamond nanofiltration membrane. On the basis of separation factors (ξ) as by ratios of various NMMs of the cations in geothermal salar brines, the separation factor varies from: ξ(Li+/Na+) = 1.45; to ξ(Li+/K+) = 8.35 to ξ(Co/Li) = 0.607 to ξ(Co/Mn) = 0.635. The similar, large NMMs of Li with Co and Mn with small differences in spins may by the theory here be the explanation and cause for more difficult separation of Li from Co and Mn and the current empirical affinity of Li for Co and Mn as indeed Co and Mn have been observed as sorbents for Li.

##### Hydrogen Bond Energies in Formation of Water Molecule Clusters

Dimitar Mehandjiev, Ignat Ignatov, Nikolai Neshev, Georgi Gluhchev, Christos Drossiankis

Physical Science International Journal, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i1230298

During the last decades, the interest in water structure has increased as an important theoretical and practical problem, connected with different industrial and biological applications. Theoretically, the mechanisms of water molecules cluster formation have been of special interest. It has been assumed that aggregation of water molecules depends on the energy of hydrogen bonds. The character of this process was investigated in the present study. The approach was based on measurements of the wetting angle θ of water droplets at different energy levels during their evaporation. Taking into account previous findings that θ depends on the average energy of hydrogen bonds between water molecules, it was assumed that the size of water clusters is related to the value of θ, measured at different energy levels. This assumption was confirmed by the obtained experimental results.

##### Determination of the Electronic Energy Levels of a Quantum well Heterostruture Zn$$_{1-x}$$Mg$$_{x}$$O/ZnO/Zn$$_{1-x}$$Mg$$_{x}$$O

Moustapha Thiam, Aminata Diaw, Amaky Badiane, Omar Absatou Niasse, Amadou Diao, Moulaye Diagne, L. O. Bassirou, B. A. Bassirou

Physical Science International Journal, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i1230299

This paper studies a quantum well heterostructure made up by a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin layer (well) sandwiched between two Zn1-xMgxO layers acting as potential barriers. Setting the width of the well to a = 10 nm, the allowed quantum states in the conduction band (CB) and the wave function profiles are examined for two values of magnesium concentration : x = 0.1 and x = 0.2. The calculated wavelengths corresponding to intra-band transitions in the conduction band are in the infrared domain of the electromagnetic spectrum. These wavelengths depend on x, allowing to control the optoelectronic properties of the quantum well by adjusting the concentration x during the growth process.

##### On Fractal Properties for Pre-image Entropy

Teng-San Shih

Physical Science International Journal, Page 28-42
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i1230300

Fractal dimension for pre-image entropy is introduced for continuous maps throughout this paper. First we show the definition of pre-image entropy dimension of a dynamical system from different topological versions. Then we give those basic propositions of pre-image entropy dimension and the formula for power inequality and forward generator. Relationships among different types of pre-image entropy dimension are studied and an inequality relating them is given. Some basic examples are provided to compare those values of polynomial growth type with the pre-image entropy dimension. After that, this study constructs a symbolic subspace to attain any value between 0 and 1 for pre-image entropy dimension.

##### Review and Synthesis of Literature on Single and Multizone Thermodynamic Combustion in a Diesel Engine

Dabilgou Téré, Tubreoumya Guy Christian, Haro Kayaba, Zongo Sidiki, Kam S. Zakarie, Sandwidi Sayouba, Ouédraogo T. Léonard, Daho Tizane, Koulidiati Jean, Sanogo Oumar, Zeghmati Belkacem, Bere Antoine

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2021/v25i1230294

This work is largely devoted to a review of existing works in the literature on single and multi-zone models of thermodynamic combustion in a diesel engine. It is found that numerical simulations of diesel engine operation based on thermodynamic models are of great interest in predicting engine performance and developing new concepts.  Also, the advantages and disadvantages of the different models of a multi-zone are given. This study summarises several studies over several years of these thermodynamic models in use by presenting the different results.  The limitations of the single-zone model led to the development of the multi-zone thermodynamic combustion model. This work therefore suggests a comprehensive study that takes into account the different models (kinetics, fuel flow, injection, heat transfer, etc.) to better appreciate the performance of the diesel engine.  This will give a clear idea of how to develop new concepts for single-zone or multi-zone thermodynamic modelling that will help car manufacturers, for example.