Open Access Short Research Article

Study of Plasma Current Density and Q-profiles for Circular Cross Section Tokamak

M. Asif

Physical Science International Journal, Page 649-656
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/8138

In this paper the current density J(r) and safety factor q(r), profiles are obtained for circular cross section HT-7 tokomak. For this purpose discrete poloidal magnetic probes along with the diamagnetic loop can be utilized for the measurement. Here Plasma internal inductance  is studied by theoretical and experimental approach for circular cross section HT-7 Tokamak plasmas. Moreover, a few approximate values of the internal inductance for the different possible profiles of the plasma current density are also calculated. From the results, current density and q-profiles are obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structure and Magnetic Properties of Cu Doped MnAl

H. X. Wang, P. Z. Si, W. Jiang, X. F. Xiao, J. G. Lee, C. J. Choi, M. Zhong, Z. F. Li, H. L. Ge

Physical Science International Journal, Page 536-541
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/5326

The effects of Cu-doping and heat-treatment on the structure and magnetic properties of ô-MnAl have been investigated. Copper stabilizes the structure of ô-MnAl and enhances the fraction of ô-phase while excess Cu (≥9 atm%) results in the formation of more ã- and/or â-phase. In comparison with the binary Mn-Al system, the Cu-doped ternary alloy is more insensitive to heat-treatment in structural transformation. Cu-doping usually decreases the saturation magnetization while a certain amount of Cu enhances the coercivity of the samples. The annealing time and temperature have a substantial effect on the magnetic properties of MnAl.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Nonlinear Ion-acoustic Solitary Wave Phenomena in Slow Rotating Plasma

G. C. Das

Physical Science International Journal, Page 542-564
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/3746

Nonlinear waves have been an important subject in the field of astroplasmas under the action of Coriolis force because of rotation could be the progenitor of many heuristic feature on waves. Our main interest is to study the nonlinear ion-acoustic wave in a rotating plasma. Pseudopotential analysis has been used to derive the Sagdeev-like wave equation which, in turn, becomes the tool to study the different nature of nonlinear plasma waves. Special methods have been developed successfully to derive different kinds of solitary wave solutions. Main emphasis has been given to the interaction of Coriolis force to the changes of coherent structures of solitary waves e.g. Compressive and rarefactive solitary waves along with their explosions or collapses. It has shown that the variation of rotation affects the nonlinear wave modes and causeway exhibits shock waves, double layers, sinh-wave, and formation of sheath structure in dynamical system. It has shown that the rotation, however small in magnitude, generates a narrow wave packet with the generation of high energy therein which, in turn, yields the phenomena of radiating soliton. It finds that the Coriolis force might be the cause in blowing up the ion-acoustic pulses and could be related the phenomena of solar burst. Thus the work has the potential interest to study the nonlinear waves in astroplasmas where in Coriolis force is present with a view to rekindle the soliton dynamics in space plasmas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of E. M. Fields and Energy Transport in Metallic Nanoparticles with Near Field Excitation

D. McArthur, B. Hourahine, F. Papoff

Physical Science International Journal, Page 565-575
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/7549

We compare two ways of calculating the optical response of metallic nanoparticles illuminated by near field dipole sources. We develop tests to determine the accuracy of the calculations of internal and scattered fields of metallic nanoparticles at the boundary of the particles and in the far field. We verify the correct transport of energy by checking that the evaluation of the energy flux agrees at the surface of the particles and in the far field. A new test is introduced to check that the surface fields fulfill Maxwell's equations allowing evaluation of the validity of the internal field. Calculations of the scattering cross section show a faster rate of convergence for the principal mode theory. We show that for metallic particles the internal field is the most significant source of error.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Quantum Correction on Jeans Instability of Magnetized Radiative Plasma

A. K. Patidar, V. Shrivastava, R. K. Pensia, H. Joshi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 576-590
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/4820

The Jeans instability of infinite homogeneous plasma has been investigated in the presence of magnetic field considering the effect of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction. In the present approach, it is initiated that the criterion of Jeans instability is modified due to radiative heat-loss function and quantum effect in the longitudinal mode of propagation, while in transverse mode, it is affected by the presence of magnetic field. The resulting curves are obtained, illustrating that the temperature dependent heat-loss function and quantum correction have a stabilizing influence on the growth rate of instability. However, density dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the instability. This analytic approach first discusses the quantum plasma with radiative heat-loss function and a strong emphasis is put on the choice of appropriate change in the instability criterion.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Competition Effects in Presence of Dipole-dipole Interaction in Two Atom Systems: A Steady State Analysis

Shaik Ahmed, Ashoka Vudayagiri, P. Anantha Lakshmi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 591-605
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/7448

The behaviour of a system of two two-level atoms, both identical as well as non-identical, under the influence of a continuously varying dipole-dipole coupling parameter for a wide range of other parameters such as the atomic level separations and the coupling strength of the external radiation field is explored. A detailed analysis of the behaviour of various level populations and some of the atomic coherences is presented. The influence of the competing effects between the Rabi field strength and the dipole-dipole interaction on the two photon absorption probability is explored in detail both for identical as well as non-identical atoms. There are significant variations in the behaviour of identical and non-identical atoms as a function of the dipole coupling strength, even for small amounts of non-identity of the atoms, which in this study is incorporated through the atomic level separations. Numerical results of one of the measures of entanglement, namely the concurrence are presented.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Relativity on Dust Ion Acoustic Shock Waves Containing Degenerate Electron-positron-ion Dense Plasma

L. Nahar, M. S. Zobaer, N. Roy, A. A. Mamun

Physical Science International Journal, Page 606-622
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/3360

The nonlinear propagation of dust ion acoustic (DIA) waves in an unmagnetized collisionless degenerate dense plasma (containing degenerate electron, positron, and ion fluids) have been theoretically investigated. The Burgers’ equation has been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method taking the effect of viscous force of the ion fluid into account. The stationary shock wave solution of Burgers’ equation is obtained, and numerically analyzed in order to identify the basic properties of dust ion acoustic shock structures. It has been shown that the degenerate plasma under consideration supports compressive or rarefactive shock structures depending on some plasma parametric values. It has been also found that the effects of degenerate pressures of electrons, positrons, and ions significantly modify the basic features of the shock waves that are found to exist in such a degenerate plasma. The relevance of our results in astrophysical objects like white dwarfs and neutron stars, which are of scientific interest, is briefly discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geoelectric Investigation of Some Parts of Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

M. T. Tsepav, Bello Abdullahi, A. A. Gbedako

Physical Science International Journal, Page 623-635
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/6199

Aim: A geoelectric investigation of the subsurface layering of some locations in the Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai was carried out using the Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding (VES) method with a view to determining the depth of aquifer for groundwater development.

Methodology: The G41 Geotron Resistivity Meter was used in obtaining six (6) vertical electrical sounding data along dedicated profiles at different locations within the university, where there is concentration of developmental activities, while a global positioning system (GPS) enabled device was used in tracking the coordinates. The VES data so obtained were processed using the interpex 1xD sounding interpretation software.

Results: The VES point near the Physics Block was observed to have  the shallowest depth of aquifer at about 20m with the fractured basement of thickness about 18m; while the aquifer at the VES point near the Students’ Hostel which proved to be the best was about 38m thick at a depth of 46m. The results also show that the area is generally gently undulating and slopes from north to south with an average depth to aquifer formations of 36.75m. The lithology inferred from the interpretation showed a four layered earth    model indicating the top lateritic layer, the silty/clayey layer, the weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement which correlated with the borehole logs in the vicinity of the study area.

Conclusion: The vertical electrical sounding (VES) using the Schlumberger electrode array technique has been deployed successfully in investigating unconfined aquifer formations in some parts of the Ibrahim Babangida University, Lapai for the purpose of developing an effective water supply scheme for the study area.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Neutron Capture by 15N Nucleus at Astrophysical Energies

S. B. Dubovichenko, N. V. Afanasyeva, N. A. Burkova

Physical Science International Journal, Page 636-648
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/6753

Within the potential cluster model with the forbidden states and an orbital states classification according to the Young diagrams the possibility of description of experimental data for the total cross-sections of radiative neutron capture by 15N at energies from 25 to 370 keV was considered. It was shown that only on basis of the E1-transitions from the different states of n+15N-scattering to the ground state of 16N nucleus in n+15N-channel it is well succeed to explain the value of the total cross-sections in the considered energy range and to prognosticate its behavior at energy E 1 eV. These cross-sections at energies E 10 keV are approximated by the simple analytical form.

Open Access Review Article

Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics Concept Based on Maxwell Equations’ Symmetry

Dmitri Yerchuck, Alla Dovlatova, Andrey Alexandrov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 447-535
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/5930

The symmetry studies of Maxwell equations gave new insight on the nature of electromagnetic (EM) field. They are reviewed in the work presented. It is drawing the attention on the following aspects. EM-field has in general case quaternion structure, consisting of four independent field constituents, which differ from each other by the parities under space inversion and time reversal. Any complex relativistic field has the gauge invariant scalar (pseudoscalar) conserving quantity - complex charge. There exists physical conserving quantity, which is simultaneously invariant under both Rainich dual and additional hyperbolic dual symmetry transformation of Maxwell equations. It is spin in general case or spirality in the corresponding geometry. EM-field is described instead of unobservable vector and scalar potentials by observable electric field 4-vector-function with the components 114.PNG and (or in the case of free EM-field) by means of magnetic field 4-vector-function 212.PNG where 33.PNG43.PNG  are the -component of 4-current density, corresponding to contribution of electric and magnetic components of charge densities correspondingly, λ is conductivity, which for the case of EM-field propagation in vacuum is  =   55.PNG. Generalized Maxwell equations for quaternion four-component EM-field are presented. Invariants for EM-field, consisting of dually symmetric parts are found. The proof of the main postulate of quantum mechanics: "To any mechanical quantity can be set up in the correspondence the Hermitian matrix by quantization" is given. Canonical Dirac quantization method was developed in reviewed works in two aspects. The first aspect is its application the only to observable quantities. The second aspect is the realization along with well known time-local quantization of space-local quantization and space-time-local quantization. It was also shown, that Coulomb field can be quantized in 1D and 2D systems. New model of photons was proposed. The photons in quantized linearly polarized EM-field are main excitations in oscillator structure of EM-field, which is equivalent to spin S = 1 "boson-atomic" 1D lattice structure, consisting of the "atoms" with zeroth rest mass. The photons of the first kind and of the second kind represent themselves respectively neutral spin 1/2 EM-solitons and charged spinless EM-solitons of Su-Schrieffer-Heeger family.