In depth discussion of thermodynamics of a familiar system made of a room, a heater and a window reveals the rich complexity underlying the deceptively simple assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. It displays also the failure of available approaches to non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
Ice-shelf flexure modelling was performed using a 2D finite-difference elastic model, which takes into account sub-ice-shelf seawater flux. The sub-ice seawater flux was described by the continuity equation linked with the linear Euler equation. In the model ice shelf flexures result from variations in the incoming (outgoing) sea water flux, which flows into (out of) the sub-ice-shelf channel. The numerical experiments were carried out for the centre line, which passes from the summit to the glacier terminus along one of the fastest ice-stream at the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap. The profile includes a part of the adjacent ice-shelf. The numerical experiments were carried out for harmonic incoming seawater fluxes and the ice-shelf flexures were obtained for a wide spectrum of the seawater flux frequencies, ranging from tidal periods down to periods of a few tens of seconds (0.001..0.06 Hz). The solutions obtained by the model are in agreement (in amplitude of the flexures) with the ones obtained by the model of Holdsworth and Glynn (1978). The amplitudes of modelled ice-shelf deflections reach a maxima and it's in concordance with previous investigations of the impact of ocean waves on Antarctic ice shelves . The explanation of the effect is found in the existence of a resonance at these high frequencies.
Aims: The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) absorption study of atomic hydrogen is an useful tool that offers perhaps the first direct experimental method to study the distribution of local ring structures in glasses and in other amorphous materials.
Study Design: In the present work we intend to analyze earlier data on the EPR of the atomic hydrogen in Brazilian rubellite crystal.
Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Physics, July 2012 to December 2012.
Methodology: Isothermal decay behaviors of H0 centers at 353, 364, 373, 383, 393, 403, 413,423, 433 and 443 K, for the EPR absorption line in gamma-irradiated rubellite were analyzed using a kinetic model consisting of H0 confined in a cage formed on one side by the brucite octahedrons and on another side by ions of Y+ (Y=Na, K). The parameters describing these defects were determined with a grid optimization method. The isochronal kinetics is simulated taking in account the heating process and the kinetic equations obtained on the basis of this model were solved using the method of Runge-Kutta.
Results: It is shown that the decay process consists of two exponential components, which is consistent with the two independent first order kinetics and the model of creation and annihilation of H0 in cages.
Conclusion: Two H0 centers were found with activation energies E1 = (0.55 ± 0.04) eV and E2 = (0.99 ± 0.04) eV.
The Knoop microhardness anisotropy profile was determined on the (001) of MgF2 which has microhardness maxima in the <110> and minima in the <100>. This anisotropy is the same as TiO2 and SnO2 which also have the rutile crystal structure. This indicates that the slip systems are the same for MgF2 as the other two rutile structures. The (001) microhardness of MgF2 is the most anisotropic of these three rutile structures. The three rutile structures are compared with regard to their absolute hardness values. MgF2 is much softer than the oxides, only about half the hardness of SnO2 and a third that of TiO2. It reflects the bond strengths as related to the single crystal elastic constants. The hardness of MgF2 is similar to, but slightly harder than the cubic alkaline earth fluorides, all of which have the fluorite structure. The indentation size effect of MgF2 on the (001) for the Knoop indenter over the range of test loads from 10g to 300g was determined. The ISE of MgF2 is less pronounced than those of TiO2 and SnO2.
High performance top contact organic thin-film transistors (TC OTFTs) with bilayer electrodes (MoO3/Au) are fabricated. The interface properties of metal electrodes with organic active layer have an important effect on the OTFTs performance. We demonstrate the MoO3 layer is working as a buffer layer which can lower the charge injection barrier and reduce the contact resistance, and study the devices characteristics changing with the buffer layer thickness. Comparing with conventional TC OTFTs, the organic transistor with 10nm buffer layer shows the highest performance with field-effect mobility increasing from 0.17 to 0.69 cm2/V·s, threshold voltage downshifts from –13 to –5.3 V, and the on/off current ratio is about 50 times higher.
Most of the researches on strengthening so far had been focused on rectangular reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Researches on strengthening of RC T-beams are rather limited. This study focuses on the application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate for strengthening the tension zone of RC T-beam constrained by the presence of a stump (representative of a column) and the effect of varying the length of the strengthening laminates. Three different orientations of the CFRP laminates were tested to evaluate the best orientation. The following orientations were chosen. Orientation 1 was the full application of CFRP laminate along the centre of beam length assuming no stump was present. Orientation 2 was the full application of CFRP laminate alongside the stump parallel to beam length and Orientation 3 was the application of CFRP laminate around the stump and a continuous strip from the side of the stump to the ends of the beam. The beams were tested using the three point bending test set-up. The most suitable orientation of CFRP laminate determined was Orientation 2. The load carrying capacity had increased by about 70% compared to un-strengthened beam by strengthening both the tension and compression zone.
In this paper, we analyze the conception, the realization, and the characterization of a photovoltaic system (PV) equipped by a DC/DC buck converter and an analogical MPPT controller provided with detection circuit of dysfunction and convergence of the system (CDCS). We demonstrate that The CDCS circuit ensures an optimal functioning of the PV panels independently of variations of the weather conditions (illumination, temperature,…) and the load. From the modeling of the optimal functioning of PV panels and the complete system in the Pspice simulator, we showed the good functioning of the PV system conceived and realized in this work. During whole days of functioning, we showed that the efficiency of the converter is very satisfactory (about 80 %) and the electric power losses of the PV panel are lower than 8 %.
Historically, the algebra of random variables has been a discipline of interest to statisticians. On the other hand, in the last ve decades special functions and numerical tools have become largely available, implying other scientists to apply results regarding this area of knowledge. In special, while studying the capacity of wireless networks, electrical and network engineers rely on evaluating the probability density function of the ratio of random variables. In the present paper, the probability distribution function of α-μrandom variables is derived in terms of the H-function and used to evaluate the outage, delay-limited and ergodic capacities, generalizing earlier results in the literature. The results are evaluated by means of an original Mathematica routine and shown to be in accordance with established theoretical results.
Surface modification with kinematics-driven reaction on uniform and well-ordered Octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) on aluminium (Al) oxide surface is reported and few of its mechanical properties using different surface analysis techniques are characterized. The hyper thermal hydrogen induced collision (HHIC) approach with low proton energy can induce the hydrocarbon long chain chemical bonding and the actual ordered lattice into an array of clusters of the Octadecylphosphonic acid virgin film. By controlling the kinematics-driven reaction fluence at constant bombardment energy, the nanocluster growth of OPA coated surface has been modified on aluminum oxide substrate. In a specified reaction condition with a controllable degree of cross-linking, this hyper thermal hydrogen-driven reaction can change the cluster shape. The LB film on oxidized Al was the only system stable enough to retain a cohesive and smooth molecular layer after the cross-linking process in compared with Muscovite mica and silicon oxide substrates. The better mechanical strength of the OPA film on aluminum was reported, indeed.
Most of the researches on strengthening so far has been focused on rectangular reinforced concrete (RC) beams,and strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) T-beams are rather limited. This study focuses on the application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate for strengthening the tension zone of RC T-beam constrained by the presence of a stump (representative of a column). To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strengthening method, a total of four RC T-beams were fabricated and tested. Two of them were cast with a column stump in the midspan to provide constraints for the application of CFRP laminates. The beams were tested using the three point bending test set-up. The result showed that the restraint offered to the application of CFRP laminate due to the presence of column stump did not affect the strength of the beam significantly. The load carrying capacity was increased by about 50% over un-strengthened beam.
The effect of temperature and angle of incidence on defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystal structure for TE and TM polarizations has been studied in 5-9µm wavelength region. A symmetric Si/air multilayer system, [(Si/air)5Si(air/Si)5] has been considered in this communication. The refractive index of Si layer is taken to be dependent on temperature and wavelength simultaneously. As the refractive index of Si layer is a function of temperature of medium as well as the wavelength of incident light, this results to the tuning of defect modes. As defect modes are function of temperature, one can tune the defect modes to desired wavelength. The defects modes can also be tuned by angle of incidence for both polarizations. This type of tunable filter may be used as thermal sensing optical device etc.
Exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations play very important role to make known the inner mechanism of intricate physical phenomena. In this article, the novel -expansion method is applied to construct traveling wave solutions of the (1+1)-dimensional modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation. The performance of this method is reliable, effective and giving many new exact solutions than the existing methods. The obtained solutions are expressed in terms of hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions including solitary and periodic solutions which have many potential applications in physical science and engineering.
In this work we explore an enhanced -expansion method to study the nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Here we derive solitons, singular solitons and periodic wave solutions for the nonlinear (3+1)-dimensional Potential Yu–Toda–Sasa–Fukuyama (YTSF) equation. The obtained results show that the applied equation reveal richness of explicit solitons and periodic solutions. It is shown that the proposed method is effective and can be used for many other NLEEs in mathematical physics.
Aims: X-ray scattered from a silicon single crystal was investigated. A new scattered line with increased frequency was observed.
Study Design: In order to ascertain that the new modified X-ray line observed is not accidental, an inelastic scattering experiment has been performed, using a grazing incidence X-ray instrument with a resolution of 2´10-3.
Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Physics, Bubaneswar, India, between Jan 2011 and Nov 2011.
Methodology: In this experiment, X-rays are reflected from both the specimen and the focusing monochromator; which is known as reflection-reflection mode in double-crystal spectrometry (+1 -1). Incident radiation from an X-ray tube operated at 40 kV and 40 mA was used to obtain polychromatic CuK X-ray photons in the order of photon/s to observe a new scattering pattern from Compton effect caused excited plasmon (life time 10 -16 s) standing wave in the silicon crystal.
Results: CuK X-rays scattered from silicon (333) crystal of 15 × 15 mm2 and 1mm thick, possess unambiguous existence of a new modified line with increased frequency. The new scattering possesses high momentum transfer > kc, as high as = 6.16 ± 0.01 Å-1 and ( / kF)2 = 8.9. These findings are in agreement with the previous plasmon scattering results reported by various authors. The total cross section of this scattering is experimentally found out to be 2.95 ± 0.009 ´ 10-22 cm2/ electron and is inversely proportional to the third power of . Both theoretically calculated and experimentally observed wavelength shift data match well with each other.
Conclusion: The new incoherent line was observed with the following major features: the energy of the new modified peak is greater than that of the Rayleigh peak; the new modified peak observed is narrower than the Compton peak for the same incident X-rays line.
An expression was obtained for the energy density of the moving black-body radiation, i.e., the Stefan-Boltzmann law valid in the interval of object velocities from zero to the velocity of light in vacuo. The object temperature is shown to comprise two parts. The first one is a scalar invariant under the Lorentz transformations. The second one is a vector depending on the velocity of system motion. The scalar component of the temperature is a contraction of two tensor components of rank 3. Under normal conditions this mathematical object is a scalar. Taking account of a tensor character of the temperature a new formulation is given for the second thermodynamics law. The results obtained are of the great practical importance, in particular, while designing devices to measure the radiation temperature of moving cosmic objects, e.g., quasars.
Component based approach mitigating the risk of system failure has been proposed by detecting of the most critical components which’s malfunction leads the software system towards failure and refactoring them. Individual components have their own chances of occurring fault and these occurrences are silent most often as well as risky; the probability of failure also becomes high in such phenomena resulting large amount of wretchedness. Protection of components from being faulty can be ensured at the early phase of any structure design or modeling, if the criticality is measured previously. A remarkable number of risk minimization approaches have overlooked criticality consideration in component level which is pursued in this study. Criticality is determined in a significant way by measuring each component’s complexity and considering meaningful ranking of components based on random error injection and analyzing failure modes as well as corresponding effects. Design Mode Fan in-Fan Out, Inter Component Variable Passing Rate (ICVPR) and Average of Variable Exchange (AVE) calculation have been incorporated for finding complexity. Component criticality measurement has been carried out and compared among components within the system. Redressing system software failure only by complexity or severity measurement couldn’t bring out satisfactory consequences in real time reactive scenario. However, maneuver of refactoring critical segments could be a way of deployment.
Nowadays, by increasingly using the Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) in communication industry, Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are extensively used in various telecommunication and sensors because of adjustable properties of Bragg wavelength and their bandwidth. In this article, numerical simulation of optical fiber and FBGs is done based on three dimensional algorithm of Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD). Using this method, propagation of a wave in an optical fiber and a uniform FBG are shown and the results are compared with employing Gaussian apodization on index profile of FBG. Our results show the efficiency of FBGs improves.
In this article, the fourth order Boussinesq equation is investigated to generate many new traveling wave solutions via the improved (G'/G) -expansion method. In the method the second order linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients is used. Also, the resulted solutions are presented in three different families including solitons and periodic solutions. Furthermore, some of our solutions are coincided with published results which gained by other authors and some are new.
Aims: The aim of this work is to construct many new exact traveling wave solutions including solitons, periodic and rational solutions of the fourth order Boussinesq equation by applying the improved (G'/G)-expansion method.
Methodology: The improved (G'/G)-expansion method is effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations which arise in mathematical physics, engineering sciences and other technical arena. In addition, together with , is implemented as traveling wave solutions, where either or may be zero, but both and cannot be zero at the same time.
Results: The obtained traveling wave solutions are described in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions.
Conclusion: The constructed solutions may express a variety of new features of waves, further, may be valuable in the theoretical and numerical studies of the considered equation. Moreover, the obtained exact solutions reveal that the improved -expansion method is a promising mathematical tool, because, it can establish abundant new traveling wave solutions of different physical structures. Also, some of our solutions are in good agreement with already published results for a special case and others are new.
The title compound, C22H21NO3 belongs to the monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a = 9.3400 (3) Å, b = 22.1653 (8) Å, c = 8.7044 (3) Å, α = γ = 90˚ , β = 105.549 (1)˚, V = 1736.07 (10) Å3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.3291(1) Mg /m3, F(000) = 736, R = 0.0358 and wR = 0.0959, S= 1.082, T = 296 K. In the title compound, C22H21NO3, the nitrogen- containing ring of the pyranoquinoline moiety adopts a slightly distorted half-chair conformation and the oxygen- containing ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The benzene rings make a dihedral angle of 48.07(9) ˚. In the crystal, weak C—H…O and π—π interactions link the molecules into chains extending along the a-axis direction. The crystal structure of the title compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and spectroscopic 1H NMR technique.