Open Access Case study

The Impact of Embedded Nanoinclusion in Nanofiber Reinforced Composite

Waleed K. Ahmed, Wail N. Al Rifaie

Physical Science International Journal, Page 438-451

Studying the influence of a nanoinclusion embedded in nanofiber reinforced composite alongside a nanofiber is the objective of the present investigation. The analysis is done based on 2D, linear elastic finite element through using finite element package ANSYS/Mechanical to explore the impact of the nanoinclusion on the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite. Mainly, two scenarios are the major outlines of the study, first whenever the presence of the nanoinclusion is located at the longitudinal side of the nanofiber, whereas in the second case, the nanoinclusion is proposed to be along the transverse side of the nanofiber. The levels of the interfacial stresses, normal and shear along the nanofiber’s sides are estimated and discussed. The mechanical properties of the matrix and the nanofiber of the nanocomposite are considered be similar to the traditional well known materials, while for the modeling purposes of the stiffness of the nanoinclusion, is taken as 1/100 of the matrix stiffness. The nanocomposite is subjected to uniaxial tensile stress which is the main stress applied. The implications of the existence of the nanoinclusion on the failure of the nanocomposite due to increases of the interfacial stresses in the nanofiber/matrix line are discussed as well. It is shown through the analysis that the nanoinclusion has a great influence on the increase of the interfacial stresses along the sides of the nanofiber in a nanocomposite in different level and conditions according to the location of the nanoinclusion, and this essentially is considered as one of the main reasons of the anticipated nanocomposite failure.


Open Access Case study

A Fast and Simple Algorithm for Detecting Large Scale Structures

Giovanni C. Baiesi Pillastrini

Physical Science International Journal, Page 452-471

Aims: We propose a gravitational potential method (GPM) as a supercluster finder based on the analysis of the local gravitational potential distribution measured by fast and simple algorithm applied to a spatial distribution of mass tracers. 

Methodology: the GPM performs a two-step exploratory data analysis: first, it measures the comoving local gravitational potential generated by neighboring mass tracers at the position of a test point-like mass tracer. The computation extended to all mass tracers of the sample provides a detailed map of the negative potential fluctuations. The most negative gravitational potential is provided by the highest mass density or, in other words, the deeper is a potential fluctuations in a certain region of space and denser are the mass tracers in that region. Therefore, from a smoothed potential distribution, the deepest potential well detects unambiguously a high concentration in the mass tracer distribution. Second, applying a density contrast criterion to that mass concentration, a central bound core may be identify and quantify in terms of memberships and total mass. 

Results: using a complete volume-limited sample of galaxy clusters, a huge concentration of galaxy clusters has been detected. In its central region, 35 clusters seem to form a massive and bound core  enclosed in a spherical volume of  51 Mpc radius, centered at  Galactic coordinates l ~ 63°.7, b ~ 63°.7 and at  redshift ~ .36. It has a velocity dispersion of 1,183 Km/s with an estimated virial mass of 2.67± .80 x 1016 Mʘ.   

Conclusions: the substantial agreement of our findings compared with those obtained by different methodologies, confirms the GPM as a straightforward and powerful as well as fast supercluster finder useful for analyzing large datasets. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantum Effects on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability of a Plasma-Vacuum

G. A. Hoshoudy

Physical Science International Journal, Page 256-269

The hydrodynamic instability of unmagnetized quantum plasma layer supported by magnetized vacuum layer is investigated. The plasma is considered as incompressible, inviscid and has exponentially varying density. The relation between square normalized growth rate and square normalized wave number is obtained and analyzed. The results are shown that, the interface is more stability in the presence of quantum effect beside the magnetic field effect.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass

Nassim Haramein

Physical Science International Journal, Page 270-292

We find an exact quantized expression of the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations utilizing spherical Planck units in a generalized holographic approach.  We consider vacuum fluctuations within volumes as well as on horizon surfaces, generating a discrete spacetime quantization and a novel quantized approach to gravitation.  When applied at the quantum scale, utilizing the charge radius of the proton, we find values for the rest mass of the proton within  of the CODATA value and when the 2010 muonic proton charge radius measurement is utilized we find a deviation of    from the proton rest mass. We identify a fundamental mass ratio between the vacuum oscillations on the surface horizon and the oscillations within the volume of a proton and find a solution for the gravitational coupling constant to the strong interaction.  We derive the energy, angular frequency, and period for such a system and determine its gravitational potential considering mass dilation.  We find the force range to be closely correlated with the Yukawa potential typically utilized to illustrate the exponential drop-off of the confining force.  Zero free parameters or hidden variables are utilized. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Finite Element Method for Calculating Closest Approach of Hard Spherocylinder Fluids and the Study of Their Direct Correlation Function

Tooraj Ghaffary, Mohammad Mehdi Gharahbeigi, Fatemeh Farmanesh, Leila Shahmandi Hounejani

Physical Science International Journal, Page 293-305

We study the direct correlation function (DCF) of a classical fluid of non-spherical molecules. The components of the fluid are hard spherocylinder (SC) molecules. The required homogeneous DCF is obtained by solving Orenstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation numerically, using the Percus-Yevich (PY) approximation and the procedure proposed by Ram and co-workers. We also obtained the closest approach between two spherocylinders by using two different methods: first, extending the algorithm proposed by Vega and Lago by introducing a new geometry and second, use the finite element procedure. Results are in agreement in two methods. The calculation is performed for various values of packing fractions of the fluid and for the aspect ratios L/D=5.0,10.0. The coefficient expansions of DCF are obtained. The results are in agreement with the other recent works.


Open Access Original Research Article

Electroluminescence from Single PVK Layer Organic Light Emitting Diode Using Different Dyes at Different Concentrations

Taher M. El-Agez, Sofyan A. Taya, Ahmed A. El Tayyan, Monzir S. Abdel-Latif, Ahed Afghjani

Physical Science International Journal, Page 306-320

In this work, organic light emitting diodes are fabricated using a single PVK layer doped with a dye. Three different dyes are used: crystal violet, fluorescein, and bromophenol blue. The structure of the single layer device is doped PVK sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) and Indium-Gallium alloy (InGa) layers as anode and cathode, respectively. The I-V characteristic curves and electroluminescence emitted from the devices have been investigated in details with the concentration of the dyes. It is found that the threshold voltage after which the device begins to emit can be reduced by increasing the dye concentration up to 5%. It is found that devices fabricated using crystal violet and bromophenol blue dyes are more efficient than those fabricated using fluorescein dye. There is some preference of bromophenol blue dye over the crystal violet dye due to the smaller values of threshold voltages.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey for some Special Curves in Isotropic Space I13

Alper Osman Ogrenmis, Mihriban Kulahci, Mehmet Bektas

Physical Science International Journal, Page 321-329

In this paper, curves of AW(k)-type in isotropic space  jjjjj.PNG  are defined. Using Frenet frames in isotropic space jjjjj1.PNG,  curvature conditions of AW(k)-type curves are given. In addition, new characterizations of Bertrand and Mannheim curves are obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modification of Mechanical Strength of Octadecylphosphonic Acid on Mica by Hydrogen Bombardment

Ripon Kumar Dey

Physical Science International Journal, Page 330-347

Well-controlled, well-ordered and uniform Octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA) LB films on cleaved mica surfaces was formed, and their mechanical properties were characterized. A novel technology has been pioneered which utilizes a kinematic collision driven hydrogen abstraction using hyperthermal hydrogen molecules to induce cross-linking of hydrocarbon chains. The hyperthermal hydrogen-driven approach with proton energy as low as 5eV can induce cross-linking of the adsorbed OPA and can modify the hydrocarbon long chain chemical bonding formula and the actual ordered Langmuir-Blodgett lattice into an array of clusters of the virgin film. By increasing the kinematics-driven reaction time at fixed bombardment energy and at a modified fluence which initiates the degree of cross-linking can control the nanocluster growth of OPA thin film. Consequently, with a controllable bombardment condition with a function of fluence can modify the cluster shape and modify the mechanical strength as well.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quantum to Classical Transition in the Stochastic Hydrodynamic Analogy: The Explanation of the Lindemann Relation and the Analogies Between the Maximum of Density at He Lambda Point and that One at Water-Ice Phase Transition

Piero Chiarelli

Physical Science International Journal, Page 348-366

In the present paper the gas, liquid and solid phases made of structureless particles, are visited to the light of the quantum stochastic hydrodynamic analogy (SQHA). The SQHA shows that the quantum behavior is maintained on a distance shorter than the theory-defined quantum correlation length (lc). When, the physical length of the problem is larger than lc, the model shows that the quantum (potential) interactions may have a finite range of interaction maintaining the non-local behavior on a finite distance “quantum non-locality length” lq. The present work shows that when the mean molecular distance is larger than the quantum non-locality length we have a “classical” phases (gas and van der Waals liquids) while when the mean molecular distance becomes smaller than lq or than lc we have phases such as a solid crystal or a superfluid one, respectively, that show quantum characteristics. The model agrees with Lindemann empirical law (and explains it), for the mean square deviation of atom from the equilibrium position at melting point of crystal, and shows a connection between the maximum density at the He lambda point and that one near the water-ice solidification point.


Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Optimization of a Wind System Using a Genetic Algorithm

Clarence Semassou, Gaston Edah, Antoine Vianou

Physical Science International Journal, Page 367-384

Aims: The aim sought is to design a wind energy system can meet the energy needs of a rural household in minimizing both the economic cost and the energy cost of the system over its life cycle while ensuring continuity in the provision of electrical energy.

Study Design: Design of a wind system study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy, Laboratory Energy and Applied Mechanics, between September 2012 and March 2013.

Methodology: We have adopted an approach that requires a combination of field work and scientific work. A survey has been conducted in the locality chosen to know the equipment used to determine the consumption profile; some players were involved in determining the weight we assigned to different criteria. The NSGA-II algorithm, evolutionary genetic type was used in the context of determining the set of optimal solutions of compromise. Design variables used are the wind turbines number, batteries number, wind turbine type, battery type and height of the mast of the wind. The various programs developed have been implemented in Matlab. The method proposed has been applied to a rural household locality of Benin, named Dekin to ensure its power supply.

Results: The design made ​​it possible to generate several candidate solutions that are available to the user. There is also the implementation of solutions and promoting the shedding of solutions providing continuous coverage of consumer needs.

Conclusion: The multi-objective design of a wind system is not an easy task since antagonistic criteria are taken into account. To this end, we found a compromise by assigning different weight goals. Solutions to economic and energy low cost are found while improving the sevice delivered to the consumer.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigations into the Tectonic Faults on Magadi Geothermal Field Using Ground and Aeromagnetic Data

A. A. Komolafe, Z. N. Kuria, T. Woldai, M. Noomen, A. Y. B. Anifowose

Physical Science International Journal, Page 385-406

Lake Magadi area of the Kenya Rift is characterized by faulting, tectonic activities and geothermal resources. The geothermal potential of the graben in the southern part of the lake was investigated using magnetic methods (ground and airborne). This was done to determine the geometry of tectonic faults and ascertain their influence on the flow of hot springs, which are manifested on the surface. Five N-S faults were identified for ground investigation using ground magnetic survey. Magnetic data were processed using vertical derivatives, analytical signal and Euler deconvolution. The faults were further mapped with aeromagnetic data using 2D Euler deconvolution. Magnetic derivative grids and profiles revealed subsurface faulting/tectonic activities up to a depth of 400m and the presence of fluid-filled zones within the basin, which are marked by the absence of magnetic sources. A deeper investigation into the lineaments from the aeromagnetic data showed that the surface faults extend to a depth of 7.5 km in the subsurface. The alignment of magnetic sources at the rift axis showed that these faults are probably the parallel faults which bound the basin/graben to the west and to the east. The N-S fault structures in the south of the lake serve as conduits for fluids which support the upward flow of the hydrothermal fluid along its margin.


Open Access Original Research Article

New (G′ / G) -Expansion Method and Its Applications to Nonlinear PDE

Xu Lanlan, Chen Huaitang

Physical Science International Journal, Page 407-415

In this paper, the new (G′ / G)-expansion method is proposed for constructing more general exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equation with the aid of symbolic computation.By using this method many new and more general exact solutions have been obtained.To illus- trate the novelty and advantage of the proposed method, we solve the Zakharov-Kuznetsov- Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (ZKBBM) equation. Abundant exact travelling wave solutions of these equations are obtained, which include the exponential function solutions, the hyper- bolic function solutions and the trigonometric function solutions. Also it is shown that the proposed method is efficient for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics and in engineering.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Stability and Tg Characteristics of GeTeSb Glasses

Abdelhamid Badaoui, Maamar Belhadji

Physical Science International Journal, Page 416-424

Important physical properties, such as coordination number and mean bond energy of Te based chalcogenide system (GeTeSb) are studied for different Te contents, each one with different compositions when replacing Ge atoms with Sb ones. We found that these properties decrease with increasing Sb contents, and hence with decrease of average coordination number. The thermal stability of the system is evaluated according to Dietzel criterion ∆T. The glass transition temperature Tg is then deduced with a suitable proportionality with the mean bond energy and compared to experiment values. This glass temperature is also found to be related with linear function to the average coordination number according to Gibbs-DiMarzio modified equation and the parameters T0 and β are determined.


Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Optimum Design and Extraction Optics for a Glow Discharge Ion Source

F. W. Abdelsalam, M. M. Abdelrahman, B. A. Soliman, N. I. Basal

Physical Science International Journal, Page 425-437

This work deals with the study of optimal ion optic system for extraction of low current ion beam from plasma ion source based on glow discharge. The study based on experimental investigations and computer simulations results.  Simulation of the nitrogen ion trajectories with the SIMION 3D, version 7.0, package was done to optimize the extraction system of a glow discharge ion source and compared the results with experimental data obtained under the same operational conditions. The simulation investigated the influence of space charge effect  and the extraction gap width that maximize the ion beam current for singly charged nitrogen ions. The experiment measured the input electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics of the source at different nitrogen pressures. The extractor electrode voltage and the extraction gap width were determined at nitrogen gas of 1×10−3 mbar. The results of the simulation process agreed well with the experimental data.


Open Access Original Research Article

Optical Characteristics of CdO Nanostructure

Asama Natik Naje

Physical Science International Journal, Page 472-478

The Cadmium Oxide (CdO) transparent nanostructure semiconducting film is deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method at 250ºC. The structural and optical properties of the growth films are presented. The crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction. The direct band gap of CdO nanofilm was found to be 3.4eV, comparing with that of the bulk CdO.


Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Docking Studies of Napthyl Substituted Di-Spiro Octahydroindolizine

R. Vishnu Priya, J. Suresh, S. Sivakumar, R. Ranjith Kumar, R. Sankaranarayanan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 479-489

The crystal structure of spiro[2.2"]acenaphthene-1"-onespiro[3.3']-5'-(naphthylmethylidine)-1'-methylpiperidin-4'-one-4-(naphthyl)octahydroindolizine has been elucidated  by modern spectroscopic technique including, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and unequivocally confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compound C45H38N2O2, crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group I41/a with a=39.692(5) Å, b= 39.692(5) Å,   c= 8.793(5) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, V = 13852.98(83) A3. The central piperidine ring adopts twisted conformation, the piperidine of octahydroindolizine ring is in chair conformation and the pyrrole ring is in slightly twisted envelope conformation.  Details of the synthesis, NMR, crystal structure determination and intra-molecular interaction of the compound are given. The molecular docking study of synthesized compound with an enzyme, namely, N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase that is involved in arginine biosynthesis in M. tuberculosis (MtbAGPR) has also been carried out.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Nonlinear Evolution Equations to Construct Traveling Wave Solutions via Modified Simple Equation Method

Md. Tanjir Ahmed, Kamruzzaman Khan, M. Ali Akbar

Physical Science International Journal, Page 490-503

In this paper, the modified simple equation (MSE) method is executed to find the traveling wave solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional modified KdV–Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (mKdV-KP) equation and the (2+1)-dimensional Painlevé integrable Burgers  equation (PIB). The efficiency of this method for finding exact solutions and traveling wave solutions has been demonstrated. It has shown that the method is direct, effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in mathematical physics. Moreover, this procedure reduces the large volume of calculations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quantum Oscillations of Large Polarons in Magnetic and Electric Fields in the Dielectric Layers and Bipolaron Formation

Vladimir K. Mukhomorov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 504-521

The conditions are identified under which the electrostatic image forces at an interface dielectrics result in spatial confinement of the large polarons. This paper presents the theoretical study of large polarons state near the interface of two insulators. Action of a combination of external magnetic and electric fields and forces of the electrostatic image on polaron quasi two-dimensional nanostructures is analyzed. It is established that at certain ratios of dielectric constants of two dielectrics there is a fixing of polarons at some equilibrium distance from an interface of dielectrics. Polarons are fixed in the plane of the parallel to plane of the interface, forming a quasi two-dimensional nanolayer. The Bogolyubov method of collective coordinate is used to derive equations describing quantum oscillations of the center of inertia of a polaron near its equilibrium position. A long-range resonant interaction of two oscillators resulting in the appearance of effective attraction between polarons is discussed. The dielectric properties of adjacent insulators required for complete compensation of the Coulomb interpolaron repulsion are determined. Derivation is given on the temperature and magnetic field in which the polaron oscillations are not suppressed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Peculiarities of Plasma Assisted Stearine Combustion

O. A. Nedybaliuk, O. V. Solomenko, V. Ya. Chernyak, E. V. Martysh, L. Yu. Vergun, I. V. Prysiazhnevych, S. G. Orlovska, I. I. Fedirchyk, T. E. Lisitchenko

Physical Science International Journal, Page 522-530

During combustion of hydrocarbons with high viscosity there is a problem of their spraying. Traditional gasdynamic jets are not suitable for solving these problems. Therefore, the creation of new plasma-liquid systems that would allow effective spray hydrocarbons with high viscosity is an important and promising direction. Plasma assisted combustion of hydrocarbons with high viscosity was investigated in this work. Plasma jet was used for spraying of high viscosity hydrocarbons. The mixture of n-paraffin and stearine in the solid state is used as the model of the solid paraffin based fuel. Plasma source was rotational gliding arc. Plasma system consisted of the area where the plasma is formed, the area where plasma injected with hydrocarbons and the area with flame. The current-voltage characteristics of the rotational gliding arc discharge were measured. Diagnostics of plasma torch and the flame was carried by emission spectroscopy. Temperature in the flame during plasma assisted combustion of hydrocarbons was measured.


Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of 2,4-D on Carbonized Chest Nut Shell

Jale Gülen, Sabri Arslan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 531-540

The adsorption of 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in 4x10-4 and 10-3 mol/l aqueous solutions on carbonized chest nut shell (CCS) was studied at 25ºC. The effect of temperature was also studied at 25 and 35ºC for the concentration of 10-3 mol/l. The adsorption data was modelled by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption data fit well with Freundlich isotherm that indicates the pesticide adsorption is heterogeneous type and multi layer characteristics.The effect of pH on adsorption was also studied. The adsorption capacity is quite high in acidic medium (pH=3). Different pesticide concentrations were studied at this pH from the point of pesticide removal. The carbonized chest nut shell was a good and cheap adsorbent which can be utilized in the place of active carbon.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the As, Cd, Mn and Hg Contamination in Soils and Plants (Amaranthus spinusis) of Kaduna Metropolis Dumpsites

Omoniyi Kehinde Israel, Ekwumemgbo Patricia Adamma, Sanni Habibu Adinoyi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 541-555

Aim: The study assesses the qualities of contaminated soils of ten municipal waste dumpsites in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

Study Design: Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed in soils and plants of ten dumpsites across wet and dry season in Kaduna metropolis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of chemistry of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and National Fertilizer Development Centre, Goningora, Nigeria. Within August 2011 to June 2012.

Methodology: Wet acid digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the determination of heavy metals in both soil and the plant (Amaranthus spinusis)  while standard procedures were employed for determination of the physicochemical parameters.

Results: The pH of the dumpsite soils ranged from 7.90 ± 0.02 to 9.30 ± 0.02. The organic matter contents of the dumpsite soils during the wet season were lower for most of the sites when compared to the dry season values; the control sites had organic matter contents (2.60 ± 0.01 mg/kg) which was 10% of the mean dumpsites value. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry The range of the total metal contents of the dumpsite soils for the wet season were: As 0.013-0.054; Cd 0.22-0.29; Hg 0.133-0.624 and Mn 2.615-22.89 mg/kg. The ranges were As 0.001-0.51; Cd 0.22-0.46; Hg 0.253-0.881 and Mn 1.005-30.206 for the dry season. Amaranthus spinusis had the ranges for  the wet season being: As 0.001-0.030; Cd 0.019-0.250; Hg 0.144-0.590 and Mn 0.167-0.690 mg/kg. During the dry season A. spinusis had the ranges As 0.004-0.056; Cd 0.051-0.483; Hg 0.156-0.598 and Mn 0.228-0.700 mg/kg. Metal contamination at the dumpsites follows the ranking: Mn > Hg > Cd > As. Levels of these metals in Amaranthus spinusis and the soils did not vary significantly across the season (P < 0.05). High level of contamination of these metals was recorded at Tudun Wada (TW), Rafin Guza (RG), Angwan Dosa (AD) and Angwan Shanu (AS). The transfer ratio indicates that As and Hg were more accumulated in the plant (Amaranthus spinusis) grown on TW. Cd in the control soil (0.020 ± 0.0018 mg/kg) was 10 fold the dumpsite mean, mean As at dumpsites soil was 0.034 ± 0.0031 mg/kg but not detectable in the contro. Level of Hg in the control soil was within that obtained for the dumpsite soils( 0.502 ± 0.003mg/kg), being higher than the threshold limit. Mn in the dumpsite soils was higher than the UNEPA limit of 10.0 mg/kg; the control value was 0.690 ± 0.003 mg/kg.

Conclusion: The study indicates pollution of the dumpsite soils by Hg and Mn, and this could pose health risk to man.  


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Diurnal Changes on the Quality of Digital Images

Priti Rajput, Santoresh Kumari, Sandeep Arya, Parveen Lehana

Physical Science International Journal, Page 556-567

Prospective outdoor imaging depends on diurnal changes through the day and it needs an understanding of light and its effects on quality of the images. In this paper, investigations have been carried out to study the effect of diurnal changes on the quality of the images taken at regular intervals of one hour from sunrise to sunset in a sunny day. For investigating the effect of sun orientation, the images were also taken in four different directions i.e. East, West, North, and South. The analysis of the results showed that the picture quality varies with respect to time and the orientation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation Study of Circuit Performance of GAA Silicon Nanowire Transistor and DG MOSFET

Reza Hosseini, Neda Teimuorzadeh

Physical Science International Journal, Page 568-576

In this paper, electrical characteristics of Double Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (DG MOSFET) and that of Gate All Around Silicon Nanowire Transistor (GAA SNWT) were investigated. In particular, the effect of channel length was studied. Full quantum mechanical models theoretically are the most accurate way to study such ultrasmall nanodevices. Phenomenological quantum correction model, a calibrated 3D density gradient model, was adopted in this work. Furthermore, we presented the operations of associated CMOS inverter, which were investigated in terms of static power dissipation and propagation delay. We also compared the operation of GAA SNWT inverter with that of DG MOSFET. Simulated static power dissipation and propagation delay of the GAA SNWT inverter were found to be about 17nW and 14ps, respectively, compared with 10µW and 16ps achievable with DG MOSFET inverter.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Thermal Spreading Resistance of Inhomogeneous Silicon Layer in Chip-Multiprocessor

Y. Rahmani, D. D. Ganji

Physical Science International Journal, Page 577-590

The phenomenon of thermal Spreading resistance takes places when two rough solids are brought into contact and heat flow is streamed across their asperities. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the heat conduction and thermal spreading resistance of Half-Spaces and semi-infinite Microchannels with Variable conductivity for both heat flux and temperature specified boundary conditions on the contact of silicon and heat sink material in Chip-Multiprocessor. The governing equation is expressed in cylindrical coordinates. A well-known technique (Kirchhoff transformation) is used to linearize the steady state nonlinear heat conduction equation of problem and equations are solved by deriving the analytical solution. Results are presented in contour plots that show the effects of various boundary conditions on the thermal spreading resistance, heat flow rate and temperature distribution.


Open Access Original Research Article

Form of Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator, Thermodynamic Flows and Entropy Production

V. V. Ryazanov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 591-601

Nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) in the form suggested by Zubarev is represented as an averaging operation of the quasiequilibrium statistical operator over the distribution of the lifetime of the system. The form of the density function of the system lifetime affects all its non-equilibrium characteristics. In general, we consider the situation when the distribution density of the system lifetime depends on the current time moment. In the expressions for the fluxes and entropy production additional terms appear in comparison to the expressions derived from Zubarev’s NSO. These additional terms can be obtained by applying the principle of maximum entropy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Characteristic of Bamboo and Rattan Cane Reinforced Concrete Struts

Akinyele J. Olawale, Aresa S. Wasiu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 602-611

Corrosion in steel reinforced concrete structures has prompted researchers to work on  alternative material to steel that are resistance to corrosion. This paper looked at the use of bamboo and rattan cane as alternative materials to steel in reinforced concrete struts. Fifteen (15) short concrete struts of dimension 150 mm × 150 mm × 300 mm were designed for a 50 KN load. The samples were subjected to axial load. The results after crushing showed that all the struts failed in the same manner with average compressive strength of bamboo and rattan reinforced struts being 78.18% and 63.48% that of steel reinforced struts respectively. Average crack width generated in bamboo reinforced struts was about 16.30% lower than steel, while rattan reinforced struts was 58.90% greater than that of steel. This paper concluded that bamboo and rattan cane can be effectively used as reinforcement in struts of low load bearing structures.


Open Access Original Research Article

Dust Ion-acoustic K-dV and Modified K-dV Solitons in a Dusty Degenerate Dense Plasma

K. N. Mukta, M. S. Zobaer, N. Roy, A. A. Mamun

Physical Science International Journal, Page 612-622

A theoretical investigation has been made of the roles of the degeneracy and the dynamics of electrons and ions on the DIA (dust ion-acoustic) Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified Kortewegde Vries (mK-dV) solitons that are found to exit in a dusty degenerate dense plasma containing non-relativistic degenerate ions and both non-relativistic and ultra relativistic electrons fluids, and the negatively charged dust grains. This fluid model, which is valid for both the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits has been employed with the reductive perturbation method. The K-dV and modified K-dV equations have been derived, and numerically examined. The basic features of K-dV and modified K-dV solitons have been analyzed. It has been observed that the dusty degenerate plasma system under consideration supports the propagation of solitons obtained from the solutions of K-dV and modified K-dV equations. The relevance of our results obtained from this investigation in compact astrophysical objects is briefly discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Applications of the Modified Double Sub Equation Method to Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

Shu- Huan Yang, Huai- Tang Chen

Physical Science International Journal, Page 623-633

In this paper, the modified double sub-equation method is proposed to construct complexiton solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). By means of this method, some new complexiton solutions to nonlinear PDEs are obtained, which are non-travelling wave and variable-coefficient function solutions. It is shown that the modified double sub-equation method is effective and straightforward tool to solve nonlinear PDEs.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Study of Magnetic Properties of A1-xMnxA' (A = Zn, Cd and A' = S, Te, Se) at Critical Region Using High Temperature Series Expansion Extrapolated with PADÉ Approximants

Habte Dulla Berry, Pooran Singh

Physical Science International Journal, Page 634-641

Aims: In the present work we explore magnetic properties especially spin glass, antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states of diluted magnetic semiconductors (A1-xMnxA' (A = Zn, Cd and A' = S, Te, Se)).
Place: Department of physics, College of natural sciences, Addis Ababa University, between Sept. 2012, and May 2013. 
Methodology: Using classical Heisenberg model with high temperature series expansion extrapolated with pade Ì approximants.
Results: Different magnetic phases using different concentration regions
Conclusion: We used high temperature series expansion extrapolated with pade Ì approximants to determine the critical temperature (Tc), exchange interaction couplings, critical exponents of magnetic susceptibility and correlation function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectral and Relaxation Properties of the Photoconductivity of Thin TiO2 Films Produced by the Sol-gel Technique

V. I. Bredikhin, V. N. Burenina, Yu. A. Mamayev, S. N. Yashin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 642-665

Photoconductivity of ТiO2 thin films is investigated in experiment. The excitation is performed by both a continuous Hg quartz lamp and laser sources. The photoconductivity kinetics and spectrum are investigated. The multi relaxation character of photoconductivity kinetics is revealed. The photoconductivity spectrum is measured in the 250 ÷ 420 nm range. The nature of the observed features is discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Molecular Structure of (E)-Methyl 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-(Piperidine-1-Carbonyl) Acrylate Stabilized by Hydrogen Bonding and C-H…π Interactions

Imtiaz Khan, Aliya Ibrar, Bhajan Lal, Ataf Ali Altaf, Jonathan M. White

Physical Science International Journal, Page 666-673

The crystal and molecular structure of (E)-methyl 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(piperidine-1-carbonyl)acrylate, synthesized by one-pot three component reaction of salicylaldehyde, diethyl malonate and piperidine, has been reported. The title compound 4 crystallizes from a mixture of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate in the monoclinic space group P21/n with lattice parameters a = 8.0099(3) Å, b = 19.6227(7) Å, c = 9.6322(4) Å, β = 107.004(4)°, V = 1447.77(10) Å3 and Z = 4. The molecules of the target compound 4 form H-bonded dimers in the crystal lattice. These dimers are held together by C-H…π interactions, between the piperidine equatorial α-hydrogen and the aromatic ring and C-H…O interactions between the axial α-piperidine hydrogen and the hydroxyl oxygen.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microstructure of Self-Consolidating High Strength Concrete Incorporating Palm Oil Fuel Ash

M. A. Salam, Md. Safiuddin, M. Z. Jumaat

Physical Science International Journal, Page 674-687

This paper mainly focuses the effect of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) on the microstructure of self-consolidating high-strength concrete (SCHSC). POFA has been used as a supplementary cementing material replacing ordinary portland cement (OPC) in the range of 0-30%. SCHSC mixes were produced with the water-to-binder (W/B) ratios of 0.25-0.40 to obtain high strength. The microstructure of 28 and 56 days old concretes was analyzed based on their scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) in the cases of 0 and 20% POFA contents. The influence of POFA on the 28 and 56 days compressive strength and permeable porosity was also investigated. The experimental results showed that a POFA content up to 20% increases the compressive strength of SCHSC compared with that of the control concrete due to the reduced permeable porosity. The SEMs of the concretes revealed that POFA contributes to producing a denser microstructure, which increases the compressive strength and reduces the permeable porosity of SCHSC.


Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal and Fluid Effects of Non-Newtonian Water-based Nanofluids on the Free Convection Flow between Two Vertical Planes

Y. Rahmani, R. Yousefi, S. E. Ghasemi, D. D. Ganji

Physical Science International Journal, Page 688-701

A nonlinear analytical technique (Homotopy Perturbation Method) has been developed to assess the effects of several nanofluids characteristics on the free convective heat transfer to the power-law non-Newtonian flow between two infinite parallel vertical flat plates. A numerical method (Runge-Kutta) also has been done in order to show the accuracy of Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM), then several graphs have been drawn which show the effects of nanoparticle volume fraction, kind of nanofluids, Eckert number and dimensionless non-Newtonian viscosity on the velocity and temperature profiles of problem. Finally, for various values of dimensionless non-Newtonian viscosity, the effects of different value of nanofluid nanoparticle volume fraction on the Heat transfer coefficient and skin friction are presented and discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Solitary Wave Solutions of Schrödinger Equation by Laplace−Adomian Decomposition Method

Arun Kumar, R. D. Pankaj

Physical Science International Journal, Page 702-712

In this paper we combined the Laplace Transform with Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) and presented an approach for solving non linear coupled and non coupled Schrödinger equation, with initial conditions. It is shown that the method does not need linearization, weak nonlinearity assumptions or perturbation theory to obtain analytical solutions.