Open Access Short communication

Synthesis, X-ray Crystallographic Studies and Antibacterial Screening of 1-(5-(4-Chlorophenyl) thiazol-2-yl) Hydrazine Hydrobromide

Imtiaz Khan, Aliya Ibrar, Muhammad Waqas, Jonathan M. White

Physical Science International Journal, Page 10-17

The synthesis of 1-(5-(4-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)hydrazine hydrobromide was achieved in a single step by condensation of 2-bromo-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethanone with thiosemicarbazide in absolute ethanol. The structure of the target compound was deduced by modern spectroscopic techniques including FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and unequivocally confirmed by crystallographic data. The title compound crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P 21 2 21 with unit cell parameters a = 6.6861(6) Å, b = 8.9683(12) Å, c = 20.4035(5) Å, α = β = γ = 90º, V = 1223.5(2) Å3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.751 mg/m3, F(000) = 640 and μ = 8.058 mm-1. The synthesized compound was also evaluated for antibacterial activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Classical Mechanics from the Quantum Equation

Piero Chiarelli

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9

This work shows that the stochastic generalization of the quantum hydrodynamic analogy (QHA) has its corresponding stochastic Schrödinger equation (SSE) as similarly happens for the deterministic limit. The SSE owns an imaginary random noise that has a finite correlation distance, so that when the physical length of the problem is much smaller than it, the SSE converges to the standard Schrödinger equation comprehending it. The model shows that in non-linear (weakly bounded) systems, the term responsible of the non-local interaction in the SSE may have a finite range of efficacy maintaining its non-local effect on a finite distance. A non-linear SSE that describes the related large-scale classical dynamics is derived. The work also shows that at the edge between the quantum and the classical regime the SSE can lead to the semi-empirical Gross-Pitaevskii equation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Production from Waste By-products of Ethanol Production: 3. Modeling of Gas Yield with Time

A. U. Ofoefule, U. C. Okoro, O. D. Onukwuli, C. N. Anyanwu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 18-27

The modeling of gas yield with time for the biogas production from waste by-products of ethanol production process was studied. The wastes from the processing of four starch feedstock and from their fermentation wort were utilized for the biogas production studies. The wastes constituted: (i) process wastes from starch extraction (ET) and (ii) fermentation wort (ETP). The wastes were studied alone (ET-A) and (ETP-A) and in combination with some animal wastes (cow dung (CD) and swine dung (SD) and plant wastes (field grass (FG) and glycerol (GL) giving ET-CD, ET-SD, ET-FG and ET-FG-GL. The biogas production capabilities of the wastes were in terms of (i) biogas yields (ii) onset of gas flammability and (iii) effective retention time. This was carried out for a retention period of 45 days under ambient mesophilic temperature range of 23ºC–38ºC and slurry temperature of 38ºC to 48ºC using 1 liter micro-digesters under anaerobic conditions. The modeling and simulation of biogas yield with time was carried out using NLREG version 6.3 software. The results of the study showed that ET-SD had the highest co-efficient of multiple determinations (Ra2) of 80% followed by the ET-A with Ra2 of 70% and ET-CD, 51.5% while, ETP-FG-GL had the least Ra2 value of 1.43%, ETP-A had 8.68%, and ETP-FG, 12.63%. General results showed that gas yield with time for these waste types can only be predicted for ET-A and its combinations (ET-SD and ET-CD).


Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Naphtholic and Phenolic Azo Dyes

Olayinka O. Ajani, Oluwabunmi E. Akinremi, Alice O. Ajani, Abiola Edobor-Osoh, Winifred U. Anake

Physical Science International Journal, Page 28-41

Azo dyes are extremely important in variety of industries for variety of technical purposes. Hence, a series of naphtholic azo dyes 1-9 were synthesized via diazotization of substituted aniline derivatives followed by azo coupling with 2-naphthol. In similar manner, diazotization followed by azo coupling with phenol afforded phenolic azo dyes 10-17 in excellent yields. The chemical structures of all synthesized compounds were confirmed using analytical data and spectroscopic technique which include Uv-visible, IR, Mass spectra, 1H- and 13C-NMR.