New layered compounds of Aluminium (III) and Chromium (III) phosphonates, were synthesized by combining aqueous solution of M(NO3)3.5H2O (M=Cr or Al) and aqueous solution of 3- phosphonopropionic Acid. The phosphonates were characterized by infra-red Spectroscopy.The IR Spectra of these compounds confirms the presence of major functional groups in these compounds. Ion Exchange of Aluminium and Chromium (III) phosphonates were also investigated using Potassium (K+) and Nickel Ni2+) and they proved to be good ion exchangers. The compounds were found to have the following stoichiometry: Al2(O3PCH2CH2COOH)3 and Cr2(O3PCH2CH2COOH)3.
Aims: Researches into a host of energy deployment options and creative policy initiatives continue in respect of renewable energy and this paper highlights some of the recent advances observed. It investigates the potentials of some second generation biofuels such as manure, tuber peels and other by-products of agriculture in providing biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel, and those of hydro power, solar energy and wind energy and also identifies workable options which can help in meeting energy demand particularly in the developing world. Study Design: Desk study with a focus on literature. Observations: The European Union has manifested the most ambitious goal thus far in respect of the development of renewable energy sources and application by adopting a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020. A pathway has also been outlined towards a 100% renewable energy supply system by 2050 for electricity, heating, cooling and transport for the European Union. Some developing countries are developing similar policies while many others do not yet have clear-cut plans to integrate renewable energy into their overall energy scenarios. Conclusion: Biomass holds significant potential in mitigating deficiencies in energy supply in developing countries. Furthermore small hydro projects rather than giant projects hold better promise for meeting the energy needs of African and other developing economies. Enforcement of certain crucial policies in respect of renewable energy development and application as observed in Israel and India should be emulated by other developing countries in view of the impending demise of fossil fuel energy sources. Also, country–level partnerships in respect of energy exploitation, delivery and application; particularly in the areas of development of enabling policies, technology deployment, human resources provision and concessionary financial assistance are recommended.