Open Access Minireview Article

The Increasing Role of Chemistry in Understanding Triboelectric Charging of Insulating Materials – A Paradigm Shift

Meurig W. Williams

Physical Science International Journal, Page 88-92
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/14033

Triboelectric charging of insulating materials has traditionally been considered a physics problem, but chemistry is playing a rapidly increasing role. Several important advances have been made since the last reviews. These developments, together with description of the role of chemistry, are reported here.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Utilization of Rice Husk Activated Charcoal Through Phytoremediation

E. O. Olagunju, L. O. Ajala, A. G. Farombi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/12318

The performance of rice husk-based activated carbon prepared by carbonization and chemical activation with zinc chloride was tested with effluent from 7UP Bottling Company, Ngwo, Enugu State, Nigeria, using standard protocols. The result indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in the pH and temperature of rice husk-based activated carbon treated effluent compared to control with no significant (P>0.05) difference. Overall, the result revealed that there was a general significant (P<0.05) decrease in the total hardness, alkanility, chemical  oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, nitrate, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid, total solid, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, and metals in rice husk acivated carbon treated filtrate when compared to the untreated. Although, values of physicochemical parameters obtained in filtrate from rice husk-based activated carbon were generally lower than that of commercial, the difference were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The results showed that waste water treated with rice husk activated carbon met the international standards for maximum limits of effluent discharge to sewage, stream and drinking water. The study therefore recommends the use of rice husk-based activated carbon as an efficient and environmental friendly water treament option.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Quantum Hydrodynamic Formulation of Dirac Equation and Its Generalized Stochastic and Non-linear Analogs

Piero Chiarelli

Physical Science International Journal, Page 93-114
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/12534

The quantum hydrodynamic-like equations as a function of two real sets of variables (i.e., the 4x4 action matrix and the 4-dimensional wave function modulus vector) of the Dirac equation are derived in the present work.  The paper shows that in the low velocity limit the equations lead to the hydrodynamic representation of the Pauli’s equation for charged particle with spin given by Janossy [1] and by Bialynicki et al [2]. The Lorentz invariance of the relativistic quantum potential that generates the non-local behavior of the quantum mechanics is discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Temperature on the Iron Sulphur Ratio of Pyrite Deposited by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition Method

Christian Nweze, Masood Akhtar, Mohammad Azad Malik, Paul O’Brien, Stella Ezeonu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 115-122
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/12924

Pyrite semiconducting film was deposited on a glass substrate from the single source precursor (Fe (S2CN(Et)2)3) by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD). The p-XRD pattern of the deposited films shows that pure pyrite was deposited at 300°C whereas mixture of pyrite and marcasite was deposited at 350°C, 400°C and 450°C. EDX analysis shows that semiconducting pyrite was deposited at 300°C and 350°C, whereas metallic pyrite was deposited at 400°C and 450°C.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nano-structural Characterizations: Elongation of Graphene Layers within Solid Hydrocarbons

Kamel A. K. Gadallah

Physical Science International Journal, Page 123-136
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/13453

Nano-structural characterizations of solid hydrocarbons were explained during their formation by the laser ablation technique and during the heat treatment. For the hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC), these characterizations cover the hydrogen content, the sp3 and sp2 hybridization, the band gap energy, and the length of the graphene layers. In the atomic and electronic structure
of HAC, the hydrogen to carbon and sp3 to spratios were characterized through the C-H stretching vibration in the mid-IR band at around the 2924 cm-1. An increase in the optical band gap energy and in the length of the graphene layers in a nano-sized scale was observed with the laser power. After heat treatments of HAC, hydrogen content, sp3/sp2 ratio and the band gap decrease while the average length of the graphene layers increases. Higher laser power shows elongation of the graphene layers in the hydrogen-rich HAC while heat treatments show this in the hydrogen-poor HAC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermoelectric Properties of Lead Telluride Filled Silicone

Bruce Y. Decker, Yong X. Gan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 137-145
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/13963

Lead telluride filled silicone composite was processed into wires under high-voltage electric field using an electrospinning facility. It has been found that the electric field helped to mix the PbTe powder with the silicone rubber matrix in liquid form and the final composite product is aligned into millimeter sized wires. The length of the manufactured wire was about 50 mm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Electrical resistance and Seebeck coefficient of the lead telluride filled silicon matrix composite wires were tested. The electrical property of the thermoelectric lead telluride/silicone composite wire follows the Ohm’s laws. Its resistivity, at the order of 106 ohm*m, is determined by the intrinsic electron conductive behavior. The material exhibits a relatively high Seebeck coefficient. The figure of merit of the composite wire is estimated as 2.8×10-6. Further improvement on the energy conversion efficiency is needed for the material to be used for alternative energy harvesting.


Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Optical Band Gap Energy of Wurtzite ZnO: Ce Nanocrystallites

George Varughese, P. W. Jithin, K. T. Usha

Physical Science International Journal, Page 146-154
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/14151

Aim: Determination of optical band gap energy of ZnO:Ce nanocrystallite and effect of doping on the optical band gap energy also probed.

Materials and Methods: ZnO:Ce nanoparticles are synthesized by Chemical precipitation route using 1 molar solutions of  Zinc Acetate and Sodium Hydroxide at 60°C. Then I molar percentage (1.72 gm) of Cerium oxide is added with the above solution and stirrered well using magnetic stirrer. Four-five drops Tri Ethyl Amine (TEA) are added as capping agent to control agglomeration. The characterization of sample was studied by XRD, FESEM, FTIR.EDAX and TEM. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to study the Optical properties of nanopowder

Results and Discussion: From the XRD techniques the crystallite size of ZnO nanopowder was determined as13.83 nm at 150˚C which increased to 16.13 nm at temperatures 180˚C. FESEM showed nanoparticle of average size 13-50nm and nano clusters have size of 1µm.  EDAX data is found as Zinc oxide with 99.4% and Cerium 0.6%.TEM confirm the formation ZnO:Ce nanoparticle and it has an average size about 25nm, Some nanorods with average diameter of 40 nm and length of about 290 nm were also observed. The UV absorption spectra for bulk ZnO, nanoparticles of ZnO displayed excitonic peaks at 375 nm and 369 nm respectively. The present study found absorption edge at 372 nm for ZnO:Ce nanoparticle.

Conclusion: The UV Absorption spectra showed red shift towards 372 nm due to doping with Cerium and blue shifted relative to Bulk ZnO. From the absorption spectra optical band gap is determined as 3.32 eV. It was found that energy band gap Eg decreases with doping of Ce. The analysis of optical properties shows that ZnO:Ce is promising dielectric material and has potential application in optoelectronic devices .