Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of ICP-OES and XRF Performance for Pb and As Analysis in Environmental Soil Samples from Chihuahua City, Mexico

Delgado R. Marcos, Parsons Jason, Garcia Humberto, Corral A. Alba Y, Cruz J. Gustavo, Campos T. Alfredo, Duarte M. Alberto, Gardea-Torresdey Jorge

Physical Science International Journal, Page 29-44

Lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) levels on PM10 were measured for indoor and outdoor atmospheres and soil samples in Chihuahua City (Chihuahua, Mexico). The concentration of both Pb and As in the soil samples was determined and compared using two instrumental techniques, Inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Statistical analyses were performed to determine if significant differences existed between the instrumental techniques, which included F-test for variances evaluation and t-test for mean comparison. The statistical analysis demonstrated that no statistically significant differences were observed for the As concentrations; however, for the Pb concentrations, significant differences did exist between the instrumental techniques. In addition, two microwave assisted digestion techniques were also tested to determine if the difference in the Pb concentrations were due to the extraction technique rather than instrumental method. The first digestion technique used nitric acid (HNO3), which commonly is used for the extraction of soluble materials within a sample. The second digestion technique used a 1:4 mixture (1 part of concentrated HNO3: 4 parts of concentrated HCl) which generally extracts more refractory elements but destroys more of the sample matrix than HNO3. Similar statistical tests (F-test and t-test) were applied to the data from both digestion types, which showed no significant difference between the extraction techniques.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Sound Absorption Coefficients on Different Types of Road Surfaces Using Non-Destructive Method as per ISO 13472-2:2010

Abhishek Kumar, P. Mondal, Prashant Vijay, U. D. Bhangale, Dinesh Tyagi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 45-56

Road Traffic Noise is causing huge socio-economic loss to the nations all around the world. In a study it is estimated that in Europe itself the traffic noise accounted for at least €38 billion per year (0.4% of total GDP of EU22). It is almost as high as one-third of socio-economic cost associated with traffic accidents. Tire Pavement noise is major component of traffic noise which is combined result of interaction of Tire and pavement. Sound Absorption Coefficient being an important property of the Road/Pavement plays an important role in the amount of noise generated from the Tire-Pavement Interaction. This paper discusses the test method and result obtained for sound absorption coefficient measurement as per newly developed non-destructive ISO 13472-2:2010 standard on three different road surfaces. It has been found that sound absorption coefficient values for all the road surfaces are within the limits (0.1) as specified under UNECE R117 regulation. The average sound absorption coefficient for the asphaltic road surface was found to be 0.014, which was 39.13% lower than the sound absorption coefficient obtained on the concrete road surface.