Open Access Original Research Article

Research on Lorentz “Local Time”

Kaizhe Guo, Chongwu Guo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 57-60

The meaning of Lorentz “local time” is reconsidered in the classical physics. Set up two inertial reference frames S and S', the frame S' is moving at a velocity v relative to frame S in the x direction. When the origin of frame S' passes the origin of frame S, the clocks at the two frames all read zero. In the zero instant in the frame S, a motionless light source emits light signals. One light signal reaches the origin of frame S at time t, and another light signal reaches the origin of frame S' at time t', then t' is Lorentz “local time”. The research indicates that the constant of c derived by using Lorentz “local time”, in fact, is the velocity of light propagating in the ether medium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Study on the Estimation of Horizontal Dilution Potential of Air Pollutants over Some Cities in Nigeria Using Wind Data

B. C. Isikwue, O. Tsutsu, E. U. Utah, F. N. Okeke

Physical Science International Journal, Page 61-73

Preliminary studies of the estimates of the horizontal dilution potential of air pollutants over some cities in Nigeria have been carried out using wind impact area diagrams, obtained by using standard deviation to calculate angles of spread of the pollutants, whose concentrations were thus determined downwind. The results showed that Port Harcourt and Minna have varying wind direction persistence (P), (P < 1.0) for all the months, thereby causing varying wind directions. This indicates unsteady pattern of winds observed in these areas. For Port Harcourt, lowest and highest values of dilution potentials, (M) (11.14m2 and 41.21m2) were observed in April and May respectively. For Minna, lowest and highest values of M (2.10m2 and 65.88m2) were also observed in April and May respectively. On the other hand, Makurdi had P equal to 1 through all the months, showing that Makurdi had more steady winds compared to the other two stations and the predominant wind direction during the period of Oct. 2008 – Feb. 2009 was south – East oriented. Lowest and largest values of M, (1.48m2 and 11.37m2) were obtained for February and December respectively. Low values of M indicate lower dilution potential which means high concentration of inert pollutants and larger values of M indicate high nature of wind speed with a larger impact area. This study shows how horizontal dilution potential can be used for comparison of wind data in time and space. It also portrays that wind impact area diagram gives a better representation of winds along with zone of high pollutant concentration as compared to wind rose. The information obtained from this study suggests periodic air quality monitoring in these towns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phase and Ellipticity Dependence of the Photoelectron Angular Distribution in Non Resonant Three Photon Ionization of Atomic Hydrogen

Mamadou Faye

Physical Science International Journal, Page 74-105

We studied the ellipticity and the dependence on the phase lag (lead) (between the semi major and the semi minor axes of the field components) of the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) in the non resonant three photon ionization of atomic hydrogen. The exact analytical expressions for azimuthal PAD for 1s, 2s, 3s, 2p, 3p and 3d, initial states, are given.
In comparison with dipole-dipole transitions, the number of quantum paths increases from: two to three for s-states; three to six for p-states; four to seven for d-states; while the number of angular coefficients goes from four to six, with two asymmetric terms. It is important that these asymmetric terms giving rise to the elliptic dichroism (ED), are only constituted with the imaginary part of the interference associated to the authorized channels leading to final states. Using the ED expression, we have established the phase shift isolation’s equation for l=0 instead of l=0,1, initial states, previously. Similarly, it is notable that, the submagnetic levels, m=0 for l=1; m=±1, for l=2, initial states, do not contribute to the PAD.
Numerical evaluation of the angular coefficients is given for each state. The PAD shapes and the ED signals have been analyzed. It is found that, the maxima or the minima and the directions, of the PAD (1s, 2s, 3s, 3p), depend on the competing angular coefficients, which in return are affected by the interference terms. It is interesting to note that ,the asymmetric terms contribute only when the PAD maxima are shifted from the semi major or semi minor axes(2p,3d);and the isotropic shape(1s,2s,2p,3p,3d) is strongly dependent on the isotropic term. It is also observed that, when the photoelectron has a preference for the left handed or the right handed, the azimuthal detection difference between these two limit angles is reduced of one half than that obtained for dipole-dipole transitions. The highest ED signal (2p, 3p), occurs from the combination of the strong contributing asymmetric terms with the competing four first PAD terms. Besides, for 1s initial state, a nonzero ED signal is observed, at a particular value of the phase lag matching the phase shifts difference, for nearly circularly and nearly linearly polarized light.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heat Flow Stability Profiles in Response to Non-Linear Thermal Potential

C. I. Okoro, M. Y. Onimisi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 106-115

Heat flow stability profiles in the presence of external thermal field require careful qualitative treatment. The computational data must be considered to agree with realistic models. A hexagonal plate endowed with the thermal and material properties of a pure metal was chosen as test case and finite element algorithm was employed to obtain the numerical solutions of the temperature distributions. This was simulated with the aid of Matlab tool. Result shows that the radiation and logarithmic potentials have no disturbance on the stability profiles when compared with a control model. Classically, the circular orbits result in the event that the total internal thermal energy equals the global minimum of the applied potential. It is thus predicted that adjustment of the computational data would influence the entropy profiles of the system which in turn distorts the stability profiles in a stochastic manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of As, Cr and Cd in Walnut Trees by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy, EXAFS

E. Gallegos-Loya, C. González-Valenzuela, E. Orrantia-Borunda, A. Duarte-Moller

Physical Science International Journal, Page 116-123

Heavy metals are found naturally in the soil in small concentrations. These can be collected in bigger amounts by mining, agriculture, industry, and others. Also plants can processes these in toxicity levels and if putted into the food chain, human physiologic integrity is affected. In this work, to determine which heavy metals are found in soil, plants and fruits sampling were carried out on two farms. Walnut crop specifically. For the analysis, samples of soil, plants and fruits were taken. The soil samples were treated with the quartering method and prepared for analysis by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The results obtained by XAS show the presence of arsenic (V) in soil; Chromium (III) in soil, branch and fruit; Chromium (VI) in the branch; Cadmium (II) at the soil.