Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Annual Effective Dose Due to Ingestion and Inhalation of Radon in Groundwater from Kaduna, Nigeria

A. Kalip, M. F. Haque, S. Gaiya

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/42996

The variation in the concentration of radon in groundwater sources comprising of boreholes and wells in Kaduna metropolis and environs were determined by using Tri-carb LSA 1000 liquid scintillation counter. The radiation dose received by individuals within different age groups categorized under; infants, children and adults, depending on their average annual water consumption rates (ACRs) were also estimated. The mean radon activity in 16 boreholes and 18 well water samples were 1.8/Bq/L and 0.57 Bq/L respectively; while the average radon activities ranged from 0.85 to 2.57 Bq/L and 0.35 to 0.85Bq/L respectively with all values far below the United States Environmental Protection Agency MCL of 11.1 Bq/L. All the estimated annual committed effective dose (ACED) for all samples were observed to increase with radon concentration, age and ACRs, but were significantly lower than the United Nation Scientific Committee on Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limit of 1mSv/yr. The radiation dose rate received by the lung cells due to the inhalation of waterborne radon in the air was considerably higher when compared to that received by the stomach walls via ingestion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of the Calorific Power of a Heating Element

José A. Ibáñez-Mengual, Ramón P. Valerdi-Pérez, José A. García-Gamuz

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/43500

The present paper is aimed to determine the calorific power of a heating source, consisting of a laterally isolated aluminum cylinder, which incorporates an internal electrical resistance for controlling the heat, adjusted to a preset temperature. For this, a glass vessel covering the heating surface and containing a certain mass of water is placed on the cylinder, while the thermal evolution of the water, is monitored by means of a thermocouple probe. We describe a simple model, based on the resolution of the differential equation for the heat balance associated with water, incorporating two gain and loss coefficients (the latter directly associated with the heating power required) and its application to the stationary response achieved at a given time with a steady final temperature. In this way and for different preset temperatures ranging from 30 to 70 ° C (in each case, the actual temperature of the source is determined by infrared thermometer), a table of power values is obtained, whose results can be used in other experiments that require it, such as those related to measures heat conductivities in disk shaped samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis of n- Hexane and Ethylacetate Extracts of Diodia scandens Sw and Spectroscopic Identification of an Omega- 6 Fatty Acid and a Glyceryl Trilinoleoate

Mabel Ukachi Akpuaka, Jude Chukwudi Chime, John Ogbaji Igoli

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/42782

Traditional Medicine Practitioners in South East Nigeria use Diodia scandens Swartz for the treatment of different diseases. Cold maceration of n- hexane and ethyl acetate solvents extracts for 48 hours yielded brownish oily solids which were subjected to the phytochemical analysis. Column chromatography of the crude extracts using n-hexane-ethyl acetate yielded different fractions. These were subjected to spectroscopic analysis. Phytochemical analysis result of the crude n- hexane extract showed the presence of steroids, glycoside, alkaloids, and saponins. Crude ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of steroid and saponin. The column chromatographic fraction CHDS11, was identified as cis, cis-9, 12 - octadecadienioc acid. The 1H NMR chemical shift of 5.05(t) confirmed that the hydrogens are attached to the double bonds at C-9 and 10; C-12 and 13, CHDS12 was identified as 1, 2, 3-propanetriyltris (cis, cis - 9, 12-octadecadienoate), with the chemical shifts 5.28 ppm showing the vinyl protons at C-9 and 10; C-12 and 13; 5.19 ppm showed protons in between trilinoleoate chains. The presence of these compounds justified the use of this plant for treating arthritis and other diseases. This is the first report regarding these compounds which are isolated from this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Thermal Conductivities of Some Metal Materials and Clay

Bello, Rasaq, Ogundare, Rasheed Toyin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/42962

This work was carried out to determine the thermal conductivities of some selected metals (copper, brass, steel and aluminium) using silver parameters as standard values to calculate for other four metals. Determination of thermal conductivity of metallic materials is very useful in many engineering applications including electronics, automobiles and civil engineering purposes. The apparatus used in this work include retort stand, metal rods of different materials, burner and thermometers. The thermal conductivity of local material (clay) was also determined after verifying that the method has worked for the materials of known thermal conductivities. This was done by calculating the heat supplied to silver metal rod with a known thermal conductivity of 428 W/m.K. By increasing the temperature at various heat supply (2.5 W, 4.0 W, 6.0 W and 8.0 W), corresponding thermal conductivities were calculated for each metal and the local material. The results showed that with the small range of quantity of heat used in this work (2.5 – 8.0 W), Brass, Copper and Clay showed a linear increase in thermal conductivity as the quantity of heat increases, while Aluminium and Steel showed a linear decrease in value of thermal conductivity. Also, the thermal conductivity of the local clay was determined to be 9.38w/mK.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formal Dissipation-Dependent Effects of Nonlocality in the Electrodynamics of Surface Impedance for Conductors

M. A. Dresvyannikov, A. P. Chernyaev, A. L. Karuzskii, V. A. Kulbachinskii, Yu. A. Mityagin, A. V. Perestoronin, N. A. Volchkov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/43533

The study derives general frequency dependencies of the surface impedance modulus for conductors without the dc dissipation, i. e. for superconductors or perfect conductors. The frequency-dependent surface impedance was applied for the solutions corresponding to the spatially dispersive eigenvalues of the permittivity operator for conductors. The study demonstrates that appropriately taken into account effects of the spatial dispersion can give the general frequency dependence of the surface impedance for the obtained solutions including that for superconductors. It is shown that incorporation of the spatial dispersion leads to an appearance of the Meissner effect in perfect conductors in the same manner as in superconductors.