Open Access Short Research Article

Failure of the Identity That Links Thermal Expansion and Isothermal Compressibility in the Case of Condensed Phases

I. A. Stepanov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/41102

In thermodynamics, there is a relation that connects the thermal expansion coefficient and the isothermal compressibility. It has been supposed that it was a universal identity. However, it is shown here that this identity is not appropriate for condensed phases. Experimental measurements confirm this conclusion. This relation is used in the derivation of Mayer's relation and the heat capacity ratio, and proceeds to produce results that significantly deviate from experimental results for condensed phases. An additional mistake is also detected in the derivation of Mayer's relation.

Open Access Short Research Article

(Toy-model) A Simple “Digital” Vacuum Composed of Space Voxels with Quantized Energetic States

Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/41391

Based on a plausible electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature, this paper proposes a relatively simple “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM) based on a quantized 3D space composed of space voxels with quantized energetic states. DVTM contains a relatively small set observations and statements (the assumptions of the model) that may generate a relatively large number of explanations (on the common origin of both gravitational and inertial masses and Einstein’s special/general relativity) and predictions “inside” and beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics: a model of movement, a Big Bounce universe and a unification pattern for all known fundamental fields. DVTM can be considered a kind of “patch” for some Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs) and for M-Theory (MT).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Pumpkin Grown along River Benue, Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

O. A. Onekutu, H. O. A. Oluma, G. Dajoh

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/39036

This study aimed at detecting and assessing the concentrations of heavy metals in Pumpkin irrigated using surface and groundwater sources grown along the banks of River Benue, Makurdi, Nigeria. Eight heavy metals were detected to include cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The mean concentration of heavy metals in pumpkin irrigated with surface water obtained from Fiidi, Wurukum, new garage and Wadata areas of Makurdi was determined using triplicate values obtained from heavy metal analysis. The results show the mean concentrations of heavy metals to include Cd (2.07 ± 0.1), Cr (2.07 ± 0.1), Co (0.803 ± 0.01), Cu (3.14 ± 0.1), Mn (2.51 ± 0.02), Pb (1.05 ± 0.05) and Zn (9.03 ± 0.03). Fiidi had Cd (1.02 ± 0.03), Cr (2.24 ± 0.04), Co (0.417 ± 0.02), Cu (2.61 ± 0.01), Fe (1.03 ± 0.02), Pb (1.22 ± 0.02) and Zn (6.81 ± 0.001). Wurukum had mean concentration of Cd Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn to be 0.920 ± 0.03, 1.61 ± 0,02, 0.410 ± 0.02, 2.42 ± 0.02, 1.02 ± 0.03, 1.22 ± 0.02, 1.41 ± 0.01 and 8.54 ± 0.04 for the heavy metals respectively. On the other hand, pumpkin irrigated with surface water around New garage had a mean concentration of 0.710 ± 0.03, 2.13 ± 0.03, 0.410 ± 0.01, 2.90 ± 0.01, 1.11 ± 0.02, 2.03 ± 0.06, 0.527 ± 0.03, 3.11 ± 0.01, 1.22 ± 0.07, 1.81 ± 0.02, 1.22 ± 0.03 and 6.83 ± 0.06 for Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zinc respectively. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in pumpkin irrigated with groundwater were Manganese was highest in Zua (4.64 ± 0.03) and cobalt (0.410 ± 0.02) was lowest, Fiidi had Zinc (9.01 ±0.01) as the highest whereas cobalt had 0.517 ± 0.02 as the lowest mean concentration. The new garage had 7.85 ± 0.06 and 0.517 ± 0.02 whereas Wadata had 8.24 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.02 for zinc and cobalt as the highest and lowest mean concentration respectively. The presence of the heavy metals in pumpkin planted in the locations studied did not vary significantly since all the heavy metals detected were present in all the samples studied at P> 0.05.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Tropospheric Variation of Radio Refractivity and Field Strength Variability over Some Selected Stations in Northern Nigeria

M. M. Tanko, A. Akinbobola, M. S. Liman, J. S. Ojo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/41320

The effects of meteorological parameters on the tropospheric radio refractivity and field strength variability cannot be overemphasised especially at the lower troposphere. The variability of tropospheric radio refractivity and field strength over selected fourteen stations in northern Nigeria has been assessed from daily meteorological data of pressure, temperature and relative humidity for the period of 12years (2003-2014). The data were sourced from the archive of European Re-Analyzed data (ERA Interim). The variables were computed using theoretical formulations and regression analysis was carried out to obtain the degree of influence of the meteorological parameters on surface refractivity. The result revealed a seasonal variation with maximum refractivity of about 424 N-unit in the wet months and minimum refractivity of about 248 N-unit in the dry months. Also, the stations in the guinea savannah showed a higher refractivity than the stations in Sudan and the Sahel region. This could be partly attributed to the reduction in humidity enhanced by a distance between the Inter Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) and the stations. Moreso, a higher field strength of about 28 dB during dry months and a lower field strength of about 2 dB during the wet months were observed. The study has revealed a strong correlation between the relative humidity and refractivity in all the three geo-climatic zones of northern Nigeria.

Open Access Review Article

Characterization of Vertical Profile of Rain Micro-Structure Using Micro Rain Radar in a Tropical Part of Nigeria

A. C. Tomiwa, J. S. Ojo, M. O. Ajewole

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/36981

Understanding the vertical microstructure of rain is one of the key tools to the physical processes of rain attenuation. In this paper, one-year (January 2010- December, 2010) data of rainfall parameters were considered and the microstructure of rain were studied using a vertically-pointing Micro Rain Radar (MRR) located at The Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria. Rainfall parameters were measured from the ground level to a height of 4.8 km above sea level with a vertical resolution of 0.16 km. The rain rates were classified into low (stratiform) and high (convective). These classifications were based on different profile rain microstructure, among which are rain rates, liquid water content, Drop Size Distribution (DSD), average fall speed of the drops and radar reflectivity. The results show that the rain height obtained from the bright band’s signature of melting layer of radar reflectivity profile vary between the heights 4.0 km and 4.3 km (equivalent to 4.36 and 4.66 km above sea level) as compared to the fixed value of 4.86 km assigned by the International Telecommunication Union-Recommendations (ITU-R) 839-4. DSD distribution is also narrow when the rain rate is low and becomes significantly wider with increasing rain rate, indicating the increasing presence of larger drops. Comparison of rain rate measurement made by the ground based rain gauge and from the 160 m level obtained from MRR shows some level of agreement at smaller rain rate values. The overall results could lead to better understanding of microstructure of rain needed for analysis of rain attenuation study in this region.