Open Access Short Research Article

Laser Cooling of Radium Atoms, Computational Investigation

Nafie A. Almuslet, Iman Nooreldin Sirair Elhaj

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/37726

In this work Matlab simulation of the atomic Liouville equation for spontaneous emissions was developed for laser cooling of Radium atoms. The atomic decay time driven was determined according to the photon account. The theory includes the mechanical light effect for to atomic structure. The study followed the stimulating solution of Optical Bloch Equations (OBE’s) for four levels system in an atom trap, where the center of mass motion is described quantum mechanically. The results showed that the laser cooling approach to Maxwell’s law, the reduction of the velocity leads to new distribution of velocities and the atoms moving towards the light source will resonate the light field (crossing resonance).


Open Access Original Research Article

A Simple Relative Humidity Sensor Employing Optical Fiber Coated with Lithium Chloride

Bao- Kai Zhang, Chun- Hua Tan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/37309

A simple optical fiber relative humidity sensor was fabricated using a lithium chloride film coated on the distal end of sensing fiber. The sensing element, lithium chloride film whose refractive index is sensitive to moisture, thereby changes the reflected light intensity of the sensing end. By monitoring the change of reflected light intensity under different RH levels, the information about RH of the environment can be obtained. A difference of up to 0.64uW of the reflected optical power is observed when RH changes from 11 to 75%. The LiCl-based sensor has a sensitivity of about 0.01uW/%RH with a slope linearity of more than 99.8%. The experimental setup is simple and easy to handle. The results demonstrate that LiCl-based optical fiber sensor is sensitive, economical, flexible, and fast response, has the potential of remote on-line monitoring humidity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Generalized Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics and the Principles of Completeness in Physics

P. Castro, J. R. Croca, M. Gatta, R. Moreira

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/37038

Focusing on the initial development of quantum mechanics, we will give a brief historical synopsis of the theory foundations, based on the Fourier framework and stating the philosophical conclusions inspired by that same mathematical formalism. We will then proceed, introducing an alternative way of describing the undulatory aspects of quantum entities, using local Gaussian Morlet wavelets. As we shall see, this change implies different philosophical interpretations about quantum reality and, even more, about the contemporary accepted differences between the quantum and the macroscopic realms. From these we will witness the formal and heuristic power of wavelet local analysis applied to the physical description of Nature. The ideas presented in this paper are initial standpoints of what can hopefully be expected to be a more mature and unifying physical theory, still undergoing development.


Open Access Original Research Article

Coal-fired Power Plants and Their Impact on Ecosystems Health

Mintesinot Jiru

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/38354

Coal-fired power plants emit greenhouse gases (GHG) that cause global warming. Coal, being one of the most important fossil fuel, emits three times as much GHG as natural gas. The combustion of coal (fossil fuels at large) discharge different kinds of chemical substances that affect ecosystems and human health. Some of the most important by-products include Nitrous oxides, Sulfur oxides, Carbon dioxide, Fly ash and Mercury. Various studies have confirmed that fly ash contains high levels of carcinogens causing more incidences of cancer, albeit data on ecosystems health is scanty and little is understood. The Author designed a greenhouse study to investigate the effects of coal by-products on the health of immediate ecosystems by growing tomatoes in potted soils collected from two coal-fired power plants. The first site (Chalk Point generating station), is located in Prince George's County (MD) while the second one (Brandon Shore generating Station) is located in Anne Arundel County near Curtis Bay (MD). Three replicate samples were taken within 1 mile and 4 miles radius of these coal-fired power plants. Measurements were made on the soils physico-chemical (pH, soil texture) and plant morphological (leaf-area-index, color, stalk diameter and height) characteristics. Results of the analysis show that plants growing in close proximity to the coal-fired power plants exhibit a very low leaf-area-index, stunted growth and overall low performance. The study concluded that coal-fired power plants do exert undesirable ecological impacts and in the long-run can have a detrimental effect on the health of ecosystems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arbitrary l-state Solution of the Schrödinger Equation for q-deformed Attractive Radial Plus Coulomb-like Molecular Potential within the Framework of NU-Method

Benedict Iserom Ita, Louis Hitler, Innocent Joseph, Ikeuba Alexander, Pigweh Isa Amos, Magu Thomas Odey

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/38034

The Schrödinger equation in one dimension for the q-deformed attractive radial plus coulomb-like molecular potential (ARCMP) is solved approximately to obtain bound states eigen solutions using the parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The corresponding unnormalized eigen functions are evaluated in terms of Jacobi polynomials. Interestingly, the resulting eigen energy equations can be used to study the spectroscopy of some selected diatomic atoms and molecules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use and Its Implication on Natural Environment of Donga LGA, Nigeria

Adelalu Tope Gabriel, Zemba Ambrose Audu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/37098

The study assessed land use and land cover changes and its effect on the communities in southern Taraba specifically in Donga. The paper identify and delineate different LULC categories, evaluates the rate of change that occurred and examine the implication on incessant flooding using multi-temporal satellite imageries of three different time periods, i.e Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) of 2000, 2012 and 2016 acquired from USGS sites. Area calculations of the arc GIS 10.1 software were used to derive the trends, rates, and magnitude of changes while map overlay was employed for assessing the nature and location change.  The images of the study area were categorized into five different classes namely water body, built up, vegetation, bare land and rock outcrop. The implication of LULC change on flooding incidence in the study area was analysed by an interaction with local communities through personal interaction with focus group and usage of questionnaire. The results reveal that barely two decades, built- up and bare land have been increased by 4% (137.7021 km2), and 12% (409.8324 km2) while vegetation, water body and rock outcrop have decreased by16% (541.1142 km2), 0.08% (2.5924 km2) and 0.1% (3.8279 km2) respectively. Based on the interview conducted, 93% of the respondents are attestants to the fact that flooding is on the increase and 47% affirmed that increase in rainfall intensity is the major cause. Even though only 8% of the respondents adduced flooding to change in land use and land cover, the analysed imageries show that between the spaces of 16 years, the present built up area is fifth times of the capture in the year 2000 and that 16% of the vegetation cover has disappeared for other use. The understanding of the intricacy of nature and the influence of land use and land cover change on the farming community is of necessity, more especially as the climate change and the government look inward to divert from mono economy. The dependency on land and land cover could increase in order to get out of this present recession as agricultural sector top the recovering agenda in the Nation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Variation of the Intensity of the Gamma Radiation in the Period from May 28 to September 25 of 2017 in Sao José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Inacio M. Martin, Franklin A. Silva, Marcelo P. Gomes

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/37789

The variation of gamma radiation intensity between 200 keV to 10.0 MeV was measured, in the period from June 28 to September 25 of 2017. These measurements were taken 25 meters above ground level in a tower in São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. A minute interval was used from each point of measurements. During this period, there were weak and moderate rains with net intensity of 27 mm. The variation in temperature during this period was between 15°C and 32°C, reproducing a desert-like climate. By monitoring the gamma radiation it was possible to observe the arrival of cold fronts from Southern Brazil and the (day/night) cycles due to the greater or lesser amount of radon gas present in the region. The main feature of this work is that it indicates the dynamics of gamma radiation in a simple way according to the variation of meteorological parameters in that location, which is very important for environmental studies in the tropical region.


Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Evaluation and Qualitative Analysis of Biogas Produced from Co-Digesting Kitchen Waste and Cow Dung

Andati Wellington, Lilechi D. Baraza, Maxwell Mageto, Kengara Fredrick Orori

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/38559

Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for organic pollution reduction and bio-energy production and has increasing applications worldwide. Produced biogas consists mainly of 50–70% methane (CH4) and 30–50% carbon dioxide (CO2). The most common utilization route of biogas is for electricity production, often combined with utilization of the excess heat. This widens up the opportunities to utilize biogas in distant energy consumption locations. The most common methods for biogas upgrading include water washing, pressure swing adsorption, polyglycol adsorption, and chemical treatment, which are performed outside the anaerobic reactor and require investments in external compressors, pumps, membranes, etc. Therefore, the cost for biogas upgrading is relatively high. In situ biogas upgrading has been investigated previously and several methods have been proposed, where CH4 rich biogas could be obtained directly from the anaerobic reactor. In this research, we investigated the energy evaluation and qualitative analysis of biogas produced from co-digesting kitchen waste and cow dung. Biomass Kitchen waste was collected, as feedstock for a home-made laboratory-scale anaerobic digester (10L capacity) to produce biogas in the Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST) Physics laboratory for 27 days. This was done at a temperature range of 25°C - 35°C and in an alkaline environment maintained by adding a medium of sodium hydroxide. The power potential for the biogas collected was found to be 22,461.77 W/m3. Comparing this with the Literature value of 37,258.9 W/m3 for pure methane, it was found that 60.29% of the biogas sample tested was methane. The gas chromatogram on five gas samples collected from individual kitchen waste substrates showed slightly higher percentages of methane content in the biogas collected from starch and pure cow dung in relation with other tested samples. Biogas production significantly increased when co-digestion of kitchen waste was done with cow dung. An even higher biogas yield was realized in the samples maintained in alkaline environment. This study forms a basis upon which large scale biogas production from kitchen waste can be done for domestic and commercial use.


Open Access Original Research Article

Realization and Implementation of Polynomial Chaotic Sun System

C. Nwachioma, J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/38497

In this study, the circuit realization and its corresponding implementation by means of analog components is presented for a new chaotic system. In particular, the polynomial chaotic Sun system, which has 12 terms, twelve parameters and six nonlinearities, is considered. A relation for converting the chaotic ODE system parameters into circuit parameters is provided. The circuit realization of such system is simulated by PSPice-A/D. Next, the circuit is implemented by means of analog electronic components such as operational amplifiers and multipliers. The signals measured from experiments agreed with numerical simulations.