Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Leachate on Physcicochemical Properties of Soil, Within the Vicinity of Oghara Medical Dumpsite, Delta State Nigeria

P. O. Nwaka, B. Anegbe, O. Adeniyi, I. G. Okunzuwa, A. Jidonwo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/37470

Assessing the level of toxic metals in pollution prone areas is imperative in order to ascertain their present levels. Top soil TS (0-15 cm) and sub soil SS (15-30 cm) samples and leachate were obtained in Oghara Teaching Hospital dumpsite. Three locations in the dumpsite were sampled. The soil and leachate was characterized using standard methods. The results shows that the pH was acidic with a range value of 4.26-5.48, electrical conductivity EC (29-197 /cm, cation exchange capacity CEC (11.58-25.10) meq/100g, nitrogen N (0.21-0.49) %, organic matter O.M (3.77-9.18) %, organic carbon O.C (2.18-5.31) %, SO42- (5.66-29.53) meg/100 g, PO43- (5.07-54.29) meg/100 g, Clay (13.60-17.62) %, Silt (2.21-2.99) % and Sand (79.86-84.13) %. The soil samples contain elevated levels of heavy metals with iron having the highest concentration. The metal concentrations are; 3328.50-6569.40, 117.70-267.70, 49.38-205.76, 11.63-87.21, 1.50-5.45 and 10.29-18.57 mg/kg for Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb respectively. The fractionation results follows the order B1 > R > B2 > B3. The mobility factor was high which is an indication of mobile nature of these metals, with lead (Pb) being the least mobile metal. The result of the leachate characterization are; pH (5.9), total dissolve solids TDS (32 mg/l), total suspended solids TSS (3700 mg/l), dissolve oxygen DO (1.40 mg/l), biological oxygen demand BOD (84 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand COD (214 mg/l), Ca2+ (62.20 mg/l) and Mg2+ (28.00 mg/l). This research is an eye opener to the indiscriminate dumping of hospital waste, as these can be a major source of heavy metals pollution if not properly checked.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution Functions and PIC Electrostatic Simulation for Three-Component Dusty Plasma

N. A. Hussein, A. H. Ahmed, E. G. Sayed

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/37414

Due to the complexity of plasma dynamics and kinetics, it is often used in research model plasma through computer simulations. A new approach to the electrostatic simulation of dilute plasma, based on the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation method, is explored. We discuss the distribution functions and simulation for three-component dilute plasma e-p-i (electrons, positrons, and ions) model which is homogeneous and in equilibrium. Finally, our code is successfully against with three-component dilute plasma distribution function.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Significance of Density of an Electrically Charged Quantum Particle

E. Comay

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/38853

Expressions of a conserved 4-current and its density are examined in cases of electrically charged quantum particles. It is proven that the Noether theorem cannot be regarded as a sufficient condition that yields a consistent expression of a conserved 4-current, because electromagnetic interactions pose further constraints. A mathematical analysis shows that the Dirac linear equation yields a consistent expression for a 4-current. In contrast, second order quantum equations, such as the Klein-Gordon equation of an electrically charged scalar particle and the electroweak equation of the W± vector particles do not provide a consistent expression for a conserved 4-current that adequately describes electromagnetic interactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling of Heat Transfer in a Habitat Built in Local Materials in Dry Tropical Climate

Abdoulaye Compaore, Boureima Dianda, Gilbert Nana, D. Joseph Bathiebo, Belkacem Zeghmati, Xavier Chesneau, Stéphane Abide

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/38931

A numerical modeling of heat transfer in a habitat whose walls are in local materials (compressed earth blocks) is presented. The transfer equations based on the nodal method are solved by an implicit finite difference method and the Gauss algorithm coupled to an iterative procedure. It was analyzed the influence of the rate of air exchange, the thickness of the walls and the nature of the materials of which they are composed on the spatio-temporal distributions of the temperature of the air inside the habitat and those of its walls. The results show that the temperature inside habitats whose walls are made of local materials (earthen materials) is lower than that of modern habitats (cement blocks). The increase in the thickness of the walls contributes to a better thermal inertia of the habitat by improving the decrement factor and the time lag difference between the inside and the outside. Also, over-ventilation of a habitat with high inertia has a negative impact on its performance during the hottest periods.

Open Access Review Article

A New Method for Calculating the Sublevels of Multi-quantum Well Structures

Xing-Kui Cheng, Jun-Ming Zhou, Qi Huang

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/37306

The sublevels of multi-quantum well structures (MQW) are calculated by the electron interference model and Kronig-Penney model, respectively. Comparing the values calculated theoretically with results measured in experiment, we can see that the values calculated theoretically by the electron interference model are all in excellent agreement with the results measured in experiments. Whereas, most of results calculated by Kronig-Penney model are out of accord with ones measured in experiments and the reason why the theoretical calculation is inconsistent with the experimental result is discussed. Calculating the sublevels of MQW by the electron interference is still easier and more convenient than that by Kronig-Penney model.