Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Pollution Level and Its Variation: A Case Study of Some Selected Sites within Kano State Nigeria

N. F. Isa, U. M. Ibrahim, F. Ahmad, Y. Y. Ibrahim, B. Haladu, M. Said, Abidina Bello

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/36631

Aim: This research investigates the pollution level of heavy metals and their variation in five selected areas in Kano state, Nigeria. The heavy metals investigated are Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), and Nickel (Ni).

Place and Duration of Study: The area under investigation is found to be associated with various activities (e.g. Industrialization, blacksmithing, metal scrap dump site, agriculture etc) for the past 40 years but due to increase in population, it is now a compact (Nucleated) settlement. In agricultural areas, some of the farmers use the polluted water released for their source of irrigation activities. The study covers a period of six months (November 2015 to April 2016), based on the period of activities in the selected sites (e.g. cultivation by the farmers, Industrial activities, Melting, Metal scraps etc).

Methodology: Sample Preparation, Preservation and Digestion- The soil samples are collected for Three Months (February, March and April, 2016) after the sites were prepared for three months (November, December 2015 and January, 2016) for the experiment. Each time the sample was collected it was shade-dried for seven days on the plastic trays to avoid metal contact. The dried samples are grinded using ceramic coating, then sieved into refined powder and leveled into polythene bags, for storage under the ambient temperature [1].

Procedure: A beaker containing 1gm of soil sample and 30ml of Aqua regia (HNO3 +HCl) at 3:1 ratio was placed into mixer (vibrator) for one hour thirty minutes. Filter paper (Whiteman No.42) was used to filter the solution (suspension) on a separate beaker and distilled water was added to marked 50ml. Atomic absorption spectroscopy ((ASS)-Model 210 VGP) was used to determine the presence and concentration of; Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn and Fe with the corresponding wavelength of each metal; 248.3, 213.9, 232, 357.9, 228.8, 217, 279.5 and 324.8nm respectively. The result obtained was further analyzed using SPSS 20.0.

Results: It is found that in all the five (5) sites (locations) of the study, there exist all the eight heavy metals (HMs) in varying concentrations. The slopes are deduced with the values as; Cd (0.109), Cr (0.119), Cu (0.022), Fe (0.026), Ni (0.013), Mn (0.02), Pb (0.022) and Zn (0.017). These values are used to compute the concentration of the eight metals identified, which gave the order of concentrations as: Zn>Ni>Mn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd (for February and March, 2016) but Ni>Cu>Pb>Mn>Fe>Cd>Cr>Zn (For April, 2016). The pollution load index for the five locations is obtained as: 1.2927 (BUK), 1.6249 (Naibawa), 1.6783 (KofarRuwa), 1.4197 (BUK Screen) and 1.559 (Sharada).

Conclusion: The results obtained reveals that eight (8) HMs are determined - (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Mn). These HMs recorded different/varying concentrations (within the soil). The correlation matrix generated from the concentrations of samples obtained shows that in each site, there is group of HMs that originate from the same source(s) and others that emanate from another source (s). In Naibawa, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pbhave high probability of originating from the same source while Zn might have originated from a different source But in KofarRuwa site, Fe and Zn recorded high probability of originating from the same source while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn and Pb are from other source(s). In BUK – E; Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb are probably from the same source, while Ni, Mn and Znare from different source. In the control area (BUK C site), Cd, Ni, Mn, Pb recorded values have probabilities, indicating they are from the same source while Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn are contrary from the latter. In the overall sites, the data generated reveals that Cr and Cu are from the same source while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn and Pb are from another source. From the soil pollution load index computed (before, during and after planting), the study indicates decrease in the level of contamination in all the sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Discrete Phase Space, String-Like Phase Cells, and Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Anadijiban Das, Sourav Haldar

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/37354

The discrete phase space representation of quantum mechanics involving a characteristic length is investigated. The continuous (1 + 1)-dimensional phase space is first discussed for the sake of simplicity. It is discretized into denumerable infinite number of concentric circles. These circles, endowed with “unit area”, are degenerate phase cells resembling closed strings.

Next, Schrödinger wave equation for one particle in the three dimensional space under the influence of a static potential is studied in the discrete phase space representation of wave mechanics. The Schrödinger equation in the arena of discrete phase space is a partial difference equation. The energy eigenvalue problem for a three dimensional oscillator is exactly solved.

Next, relativistic wave equations in the scenario of three dimensional discrete phase space and continuous time are explored. Specially, the partial finite difference-differential equation for a scalar field is investigated for the sake of simplicity. The exact relativistic invariance of the partial finite difference-differential version of the Klein-Gordon equation is rigorously proved. Moreover, it is shown that all nine important Green’s functions of the partial finite difference-differential wave equation for the scalar field are non-singular.

In the appendix, a possible physical interpretation for the discrete orbits in the phase space as degenerate, string-like phase cells is provided in a mathematically rigorous way.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Thermal Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate with Electrical Conductivity and Convective Surface Boundary Conditions

O. J. Fenuga, I. O. Abiala, S. O. Salawu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/37678

This paper analyses the thermal boundary layer flow over a vertical plate with electrical conductivity and convective surface boundary conditions. Transforming the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations by using the usual similarity transformation, the resulting coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by Runge- Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. The behaviour and properties of thermo physical parameters in the fluid flow on the structure of the velocity and temperature fields are presented graphically and discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytic Signal Method (Hilbert Solution) for the Investigation of Iron-Ore Deposit Using Aeromagnetic Data of Akunnu-Akoko Area, Southwest, Nigeria

E. O. Joshua, G. O. Layade, S. O. Adewuyi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/39004

Investigation of iron ore deposit cannot be overlooked because of its economic importance and demand by steel industries. Hence, this paper aimed at providing clear information about the existence of iron ore deposit in Akunnu-Akoko area. The Akunnu-Akoko area is located between latitude 7.5833ºN and 7.7000ºN and longitude 5.9167ºE and 6.0000ºE respectively. Aeromagnetic data sheet 245 was acquired from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (NGSA). The acquired data were processed and interpreted using an analytic signal method (Hilbert solution) in order to calculate susceptibilities of rocks in the area which further enhances the investigation of the speculated iron ore deposit in the study location.The minimum curvature method was applied to create an aeromagnetic image map, 3D image map, vector map and contour map for the area respectively. The magnetite type of iron ore was suspected in the area with a high susceptibility range 0.07 - 0.14. Maps obtained revealed magnetic high and low in the area. Magnetite gneiss, granite gneiss, periodolite, pure dolomite and iron ore mineralization was delineated which is in agreement with the geology of the area. The study location is characterized by high and low magnetic values with preponderance of iron-ore within latitude 7.7000º to 7.7050º and longitude 5º 551 to 5º 571 of the entire area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanism of Flow in Patchy Gravel and Vegetated Beds

O. P. Folorunso

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2018/35306

Velocity and turbulence measurements were performed in an open channel with patchy gravel and vegetated beds in order to further understand the transport processes and flow regimes that exist in open channels. The results of laboratory experiments that describe the mechanisms and transport features of heterogeneous flexible and rigid strip vegetation flow interaction with gravel roughness are presented. The paper examines the shear layers and momentum transport that arise as a result of a particular type of patchy roughness distribution. It is shown that relative to a gravel bed, the vegetated section of the channel generally resembles a free shear layer. The resistance within the vegetation porous layer reduces the velocity and creates a sharp transition across the interface at the top of vegetation; of primary importance is the shear layer at the top of the vegetation which influences and dominates the overall momentum transport. At the boundary between the gravel and vegetated section, the lateral momentum transportis observed to be a maximum. The Sweep motions are more significant near bed while Ejections dominates the flow at the upper region of the flow.