Open Access Original Research Article

“Uncertainty Relations” in the Group-theoretic Scheme of Quantum Mechanics

Nicolay V. Lunin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/33792

Non-commutativity and uncertainty relation in quantum mechanics are considered here from the group-theoretic point of view. It is shown that uncertainty relation is connected with one of unit vector of orthogonal basis of spinor transformations space.
The group-theoretic approach also demonstrates existence of relationship between non- commutativity and irreversibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Thickness on the Optical Properties of Cadmium Sulphide Thin Film Deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique

O. Okorie, A. D. A. Buba, A. M. Ramalan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/35738

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique from a bath containing Cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide and the bath was maintained at  using 78H – 1 hot plate magnetic stirrer. The CdS thin films were deposited simultaneously at different dip times of (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60) minutes to achieve different film thickness of (14.13, 17.61, 18.20, 20.84, 25.93 and 27.21) nm respectively in order to investigate the influence of the thickness on the optical properties of the films. The optical absorbance was measured directly using Single – Beam Helios Omega UV – VIS spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of (280 – 920) nm. Other optical parameters which include; transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and the optical band gap were calculated using the optical absorbance data. Results of the study show that the optical properties of the CdS thin film were largely influenced by the thickness of the films.


Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Impact on Seismic Data Quality: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex, Nigeria

S. O. Ibe, U. L. Anekwe

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/36348

The impact on depths and P-wave velocities deduced from seismic data, due to subsurface water variation, resulting from the variation in the amount of annual rainfall, was investigated in this study in order to establish the best season for reliable seismic surveys in Zaria Area, Nigeria. A Terraloc MK6 Seismograph was used to collect the seismic refraction tomography data across a borehole of standard log with the centre of the spread situated at the borehole site. Using the same spread and parameters this procedure was repeated severally in a year for four years and the choice for each survey time depended on when there was significant change in rainfall data. The interpreted 2-D results suggested that the average P-wave velocities of the subsurface in the area were generally higher when the ground was wet than when it was dry. The calculated average seasonal changes in P-wave velocity is about 1.8 ms-1 for every millimeter change in the amount of rainfall between March and May when the subsurface was fairly saturated  and about 1.3 ms-1 in August when it was most saturated. The velocities generated in this study for the interpreted rock types were compared with a standard velocity scale and the computed average error showed a little disparity of 3.8%, 3.0%, 8.7% and 7.3% between the standard velocities and the velocities for the tomograms generated from the seismic data collected when the average amount of rainfall was 0 mm, 44.8 mm, 322.1 and 62.8 mm respectively. The results also suggested that the overburden of about 9.0 m in thickness, the weathered basement of about 14.0 m in thickness and the fractured basement at a depth of about 23.0 m best fitted the borehole log. This best fit was consistently obtained in the months between March and May when the average total rainfall was about 44.8 mm in the area. The overall results of this study prompted a conclusion that for more detailed and reliable seismic studies in Zaria Area and its environs, with similar climatic condition, the surveys are best conducted between March and May.


Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Detailing of the Mechanism Responsible for Artificial Heating of the Ionosphere by Powerful High Frequency Radio Waves

Oleg V. Mingalev, Mikhail N. Melnik, Victor S. Mingalev

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/36043

The effect of a standing high-power high-frequency radio wave on the behavior of the F-layer ionospheric plasma is numerically investigated with the help of the mathematical model, developed earlier in the Polar Geophysical Institute. The mathematical model is based on a numerical solution of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations by using the macro-particle method. The results of model simulations indicate that a presence of a standing high-power high-frequency radio wave ought to influence significantly on the behavior of the bulk flow velocities of electrons and positive ions, with considerable differences between mentioned velocities taking place at the levels of the wave’s loops, whereas, mentioned velocities being equal and negligible at the levels of the nodal points. As a consequence of the different behavior of the bulk flow velocities of electrons and positive ions, intensive heating of the F-layer ionospheric plasma ought to arise at the levels of the loops of a wave. On the contrary, at the levels of the nodal points, the ionospheric plasma ought to stay undisturbed.


Open Access Review Article

Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: An Emerging Non Thermal Technology in Food Processing

Shafat Khan, Amaresh ., Keshavalu ., Soumen Ghosh

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/35518

DPCD is an emerging non-thermal process which evidently inactivates certain micro organisms and enzymes at lower temperatures and high pressure combination thereby maintaining fresh like characteristics as well as providing convenient shelf life, nutritional value and the product. DPCD ensures minimal nutrient loss and better preserved quality attributes as compared to any thermal treatment. This technology has been under investigation into past few decades and various studies have been carried on to demonstrate its mechanism and effect on various microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and moulds. Many liquid foods have shown promising results. This article is a review of effect of DPCD on the quality and safety of foods with special application of juices, beverage and dairy industry.