Open Access Original Research Article

Semi Empirical Model of Global Warming Including Cosmic Forces, Greenhouse Gases, and Volcanic Eruptions

Antero Ollila

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34187

In this paper, the author describes a semi empirical climate model (SECM) including the major forces which have impacts on the global warming namely Greenhouse Gases (GHG), the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), the Astronomical Harmonic Resonances (AHR), and the Volcanic Eruptions (VE). The effects of GHGs have been calculated based on the spectral analysis methods. The GHG effects cannot alone explain the temperature changes starting from the Little Ice Age (LIA). The known TSI variations have a major role in explaining the warming before 1880. There are two warming periods since 1930 and the cycling AHR effects can explain these periods of 60 year intervals. The warming mechanisms of TSI and AHR include the cloudiness changes and these quantitative effects are based on empirical temperature changes. The AHR effects depend on the TSI, because their impact mechanisms are proposed to happen through cloudiness changes and TSI amplification mechanism happen in the same way. Two major volcanic eruptions, which can be detected in the global temperature data, are included. The author has reconstructed the global temperature data from 1630 to 2015 utilizing the published temperature estimates for the period 1600 – 1880, and for the period 1880 – 2015 he has used the two measurement based data sets of the 1970s together with two present data sets. The SECM explains the temperature changes from 1630 to 2015 with the standard error of 0.09°C, and the coefficient of determination r2 being 0.90. The temperature increase according to SCEM from 1880 to 2015 is 0.76°C distributed between the Sun 0.35°C, the GHGs 0.28°C (CO2 0.22°C), and the AHR 0.13°C. The AHR effects can explain the temperature pause of the 2000s. The scenarios of four different TSI trends from 2015 to 2100 show that the temperature decreases even if the TSI would remain at the present level.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Radiation Doses from Paediatric Chest X-ray Examination at Three Hospitals in South-West Nigeria

Osahon O. David, Bamidele Lateef

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34269

The aim of this study is essentially to evaluate radiation doses to paediatric patients who were referred for chest X-ray examination between April, 2015 and December, 2016 in three hospitals South-West, Nigeria. The methodology employed in this study involved measurements based on the use of exposure parameters to determine Entrance Surface Dose (ESD). A total of one hundred (100) paediatric patients randomly chosen were included in this study. ESD was determined from exposure parameters using dose calculation software (Dosecal). The results of this study show that the range of Entrance Surface Doses (ESDs) obtained for 0-1year patient is 38.00-150.00 µGy, for 1-5 years is 43.34-194.00 µGy, for 5-10 years is 74.00-223.00 µGy and for 10-15 years is 87.60-292.00 µGy. The mean ESDs obtained in this study were found to be relatively lower than the ESDs obtained in other previous studies in Nigeria but higher than the recommended reference dose value given by the European guidelines. This indicates that more attention needs to be given to X-ray facilities in the Country and that X-ray departments need to review their practice in terms of training and re-training of radiographers, repeated chest X-ray procedures for paediatrics, calibration of X-ray machines and standardisation of processing chemicals in order to bring dose given to patients to optimum levels. This study has also revealed the need to have dedicated X-ray facilities for paediatrics throughout the country.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Two-way and One-way Vacuum Speed of Light under the Membrane Paradigm

Stefan von Weber, Alexander von Eye

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/32988

The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) by Wilson and Penzias defines a rest frame in the sense of Newton’s absolute space. This fact is one of the reasons why brane worlds moved into the focus of interest. Membrane theory (CM) uses the cosmological model of a 4-dimensional thin membrane, expanding in hyperspace. A homogeneous vector field acts perpendicularly from outside onto the membrane and causes, this way, curvature of space and gravitation. The membrane defines an absolute Newtonian space, and forces small changes of Special Relativity (SR). The most important difference between CM and SR is the introduction of a cross contraction of moving bodies.

Photons travel always and only in the rest inertial reference frame. There is no difference between two-way and one-way speed of light. Far away from masses photons move with constant speed c. The rest inertial reference frame is defined by the absence of the dipole of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), caused by the Doppler-effect. The speed of light is anisotropic in each inertial reference frame that is in relative motion with respect to the rest frame. Although the speed of light is constant in the vacuum, it can be measured on Earth only with a systematic error of ± 36.9 m/s. The reason is that the flow of time of the clocks on the Earth is not constant.

The measurement of the one-way speed of light is a special issue. Although the speed of light is anisotropic in each moving inertial reference frame, the time transformation hides this fact nearly perfectly. A co-moving observer registers the arrival of the light signal after a time interval which suggests that speed of light is always c. To obtain this result, it is sufficient to accept the existence of a rest inertial reference frame and the transformation of time given by FitzGerald and Lorentz.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Metastable Non-Nucleonic States of Nuclear Matter: Phenomenology

Timashev Serge

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34889

A hypothesis of the existence of metastable states for nuclear matter with a locally shaken-up nucleonic structure of the nucleus, was proposed earlier. Such states are initiated by inelastic scattering of electrons by nuclei along the path of weak nuclear interaction. The relaxation of such nuclei is also determined by weak interactions. The use of the hypothesis makes it possible to physically interpret a rather large group of experimental data on the initiation of low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) and the acceleration of radioactive α- and β-decays in a low-temperature plasma. The possible mechanisms of LENRs implemented in a Rossi E-CAT reactor are discussed. It is also suggested that the metastable isu-states of a different type occur as a result of high-energy collisions of particles, when heavy hadrons (baryons, mesons) are formed in the collisions of protons with characteristic energies higher than 1 TeV. This kind of concept makes it possible to physically interpret the recently recorded anomaly in the angular  correlations of positron-electron pairs emitted in the radioactive decays of excited 8Be nuclei formed by the interaction between protons with kinetic energy ~ 1 MeV and 7Li nuclei. A recent hypothesis of the existence of yet another, fifth fundamental interaction by Feng et al, in addition to the strong/weak nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions, might be introduced to explain this anomaly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geothermal Gradient, Curie Point Depth and Heat Flow Determination of Some Parts of Lower Benue Trough and Anambra Basin, Nigeria, Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data

R. Bello, C. C. Ofoha, N. Wehiuzo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34654

Background and Objective: This study, which is bounded within Latitude 6° 00’-6° 30’N and Longitude 7°00’ 7° 30’E with an approximate area of about 3025 km2 within parts of lower Benue trough and Anambra basin of Nigeria, aims at outlining the regional temperature distribution and delineating areas that are geo thermally responsive by determining: the heat change per unit distance, the heat flowing from the earth’s interior to the outer surface and the deepest depth at which the minerals loss their magnetic properties within the study area without any heat data. Materials and Methods: For the aim to be achieved, the data was subjected to quantitative analysis with the aid of the WingLink, ArcGIS, Origin Pro 8, Ms Excel and sulfer 10 software’s. Regional-residual was applied on the total magnetic intensity map and thereafter the residual divided into sixteen (16) overlapping windows. Spectral depth analysis was performed upon the overlapping windows and this revealed depth due to low frequency and high frequency components. The depths due to the low frequency components exemplify the Curie depth point (CPD).

Results: The average sedimentary thickness or the average depth due to the low frequency part was ascertained to be -5 km while the geothermal and heat flow varies from -25.2°C km-2 to -38.9°C km-2 and from -64.4 mWm-2 to -97.3 mWm-2 but with average values of -32.1°C km-2 and -80.1 mWm-2 respectively.

Conclusion: These results suggest alternative geothermal energy resource to be plausible within windows 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 16 and presence of some amount of sedimentary thickness within the area of study.