Open Access Original Research Article

Effectively Calculable Quantum Mechanics

Arkady Bolotin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/24993

According to mathematical constructivism, a mathematical object can exist only if there is a way to compute (or "construct") it; so, what is non-computable is non-constructive. In the example of the quantum model, whose Fock states are associated with Fibonacci numbers, this paper shows that the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics is non-constructive since it permits an undecidable (or effectively impossible) subset of Hilbert space. On the other hand, as it is argued in the paper, if one believes that testability of predictions is the most fundamental property of any physical theory, one needs to accept that quantum mechanics must be an effectively calculable (and thus mathematically constructive) theory. With that, a way to reformulate quantum mechanics constructively, while keeping its mathematical foundation unchanged, leads to hypercomputation. In contrast, the proposed in the paper superselection rule, which acts by effectively forbidding a coherent superposition of quantum states corresponding to potential and actual infinity, can introduce computable constructivism in a quantum mechanical theory with no need for hypercomputation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Active-reactive Power Stability Analysis a Micro Grid in Grid to Connected Mode Based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Including Model Information

Seyed Morteza Moghimi, Seyed Mohammad Shariatmadar, Reza Dashti

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/24426

Aims: The aim of this paper is optimal active-reactive power flow between main grid and micro-grid consists of two parallel Distributed Generation (DG) units.

Study Design: Design of the study is applied with optimization algorithm for proposed controller power control policy. Power controller is designed to active-reactive power (P-Q) control policy.

Place and Duration of Study: IAU, Iran, February 2015-January 2016.

Methodology: This paper, with using of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and model information analysis and control active and reactive power stability of a micro-grid includes two parallel DG units. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) model of proposed controller includes an inner current control loop and an outer power control loop based on synchronous reference frame and conventional PI regulators. PSO algorithm is used for real-time self-tuning power control parameters. Paper’s simulation is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment. As well as, PSO algorithm is programmed in M-file of MATLAB.

Results: Simulation result show satisfactory performance active and reactive power of system. As well as, in the paper, control objectives to identify generator angle reference signal and flux, and system dynamic performance improvement are used. As well as, the paper provided active-reactive power flow control between main grid and micro-grid includes DG units, and controller response in situations where load is higher or much lower than DG unit power rate. Paper’s proposed policy suggests that required load power equally between micro-grid and main grid based on PSO algorithm and using information model during load changing is shared, to fast dynamic response and stable operation is reached.

Conclusion: The paper is presented a power (P-Q) control policy for micro-grid based on PSO algorithm. This is done by proposed active and reactive power controller based on PSO algorithm for real-time self-tuning. In the paper, active and reactive power flow adjustment when that micro-grids interconnected are connected to the network has been proposed. Therefore, peak correction effectively reduces imported power from electric utility to half. In conclusion, this policy could be have significant implications for micro-grid scenario: reducing dependence on the main power system, increasing penetration in micro-source market, reduce electricity costs and improve sustainability.


Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Gamma-Ray Attenuation in Studying Soil Properties

M. E. Medhat, A. Abdel-Hafiez

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/23419

The objective of this work is focused to calculate the total mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities in some soil samples for total and partial photon interactions in the wide energy range (1 keV–100 GeV). The values of these parameters have been found varied with composition of soil and energy while their trend has been found to be with all energies. The variations of these parameters according to energy are shown for all possible photon interactions. WinXCOM code was used to calculate soil mass attenuation coefficients. The obtained data should be important for comparing radiation sensitivity and radiation detection of soil. The results of this work can be used for research in other soils with different textiles.


Open Access Original Research Article

Donor- Acceptor Carbazole and Uinoxaline Based Polymers for Application in Solar Cells

Abdelqader Imragaa, Fateh B. Eltaboni, Khaled Edbey, Abdelkarem A. Elgazail, Abdulaziz Al Ghamdi, Ahmed Iraqi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/23070

The preparation and characterization of poly[(3,6-difluoro-9-(1-heptadecan-9-yl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl)-alt-(2,3,7,8-tetraphenyl-10-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrazino[2,3-g]quinoxaline)-5,5’-diyl] P1 and Poly[(3,6-difluoro-9-(1-heptadecan-9-yl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl)-alt-(2,3-diphenyl-8-(thiophen-2-yl)quinoxalin -5-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-5.5’-diyl] P2 are presented. The polymers were prepared via Suzuki cross-coupling reactions; both polymers provided low-band-gap polymers that absorbs light up to 350 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. Cyclic voltammetry studies on the two polymers indicate greater electrolytic stability of these new polymers as compared to the polyfluorene equivalent [1,2]. Electrochemical and optical absorption show that the band gaps of P1 and P2 range from 1.64 and 1.93 eV.


Open Access Original Research Article

Photoelectrochemical Performance of Dye-sensitized Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on Natural Pigments and Wide-bandgap Nanostructured Semiconductor

Eli Danladi, Ezeoke Jonathan, M. S. Ahmad, Danladi Ezra, S. H. Sarki, Ishaya Iliyasu, P. M. Gyuk

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/25295

Four natural dyes, extracted from natural materials such as flowers, and leaves, were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photoelectrochemical performances of the DSSCs based on these dyes show that the open circuit voltages (VOC) varies from 0.433 to 0.470 V, and the short circuit photocurrent densities (JSC) ranges from 0.044 to 0.138 mAcm2, the fill factors (FF) and the cell efficiencies () also vary from 0.400 to 0.570 and 0.021 to 0.065%, respectively. The DSSC sensitized with Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers extract was found to be superior to those obtained from other dyes. The DSSC gave a JSC of 0.138 mAcm-2, VOC of 0.470 V, FF of 0.504, and η of 0.065%. The sensitization performance related to interaction between the dye and TiO2 surface is discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis and Seasonal Distribution of Some Heavy Metals in Sediment of Lagos Lagoon Using Environmental Pollution Indices

Olushola Ayoola Abiodun, Peter Olaoye Oyeleke

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/24394

Some heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Cr, As and Zn) analysis and their seasonal distribution between in the sediment samples of Lagos Lagoon were studied during the dry and wet seasons in November, 2012 to June, 2013 using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Contamination Factor (Cf), Degree of Contamination (Cd) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were the pollution indices employed to ascertain whether the contamination is anthropogenic or natural. Six sampling stations (Iddo, Ijora, Five cowries’ creek, Apapa port, Tincan creek, Commodore channel) were identified due to some anthropogenic activities observed in each station. Pb concentrations in all stations were within the permissible limits of 40 mg/kg of USEPA and Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) of Nigeria except in stations 4 and 6 in wet season. Mn levels in all the analyzed sediments were also exceeded USEPA and DPR values of 46 mg/kg during the two seasons. Cr and Zn are within the permissible limits in all the stations during the wet and dry season hence, reflecting their natural background levels in the sediment. The concentration of As in all the analyzed sediments were exceeded the USEPA value of 9.8 mg/kg. Comparison between the results obtained from the sediment analyzed during dry and wet seasons for metal concentration indicates that all the contaminants are significant at P< 0.05 level during the dry and wet seasons except for  Pb and Cr that are significant at P< 0.01 level while As and Mn are not significantly correlated between the two seasons. The metals concentrations decrease in order of Mn > As > Pb> Zn > Cr in the study areas during dry and wet seasons. The mean concentration of metals in sediment for the two seasons is significantly correlated at P=0.05 and 0.01 which implied that the metals increase within the seasons in the sediment. Sediment contamination by heavy metal based on the above indices showed that the study area have very high degree of metal contaminations.