Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic Energy Driven Stripe Formation and Pairing in Repulsive Electronic Systems

M. Bosch, Z. Nussinov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-33
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/24117

We study repulsive Hubbard and t − J type systems on a square lattice (long believed to capture certain quintessential aspects of the high temperature superconductors). These models (alongside the parent compounds of the high temperature superconductors) are antiferromagnetic in the absence of hole doping. As we illustrate, a unifying underlying principle for the dynamics of holes introduced by doping rationalizes the emergence of nonuniform electronic structures– “stripes” and possible pairing tendencies therein. Specifically, our analysis invokes the following (numerically verified) sublattice parity principle: A strong antiferromagnetic background forces injected holes to hop in steps of two such that they always remain on the same sublattice. When applied to a domain wall in an antiferromagnet, this simple principle naturally gives rise to (bond centered) stripes. We demonstrate that the holes are self-consistently localized on stripes. Extending this picture, we then show that the holes on a stripe favor the formation of pairs on neighboring rungs or sites. Throughout this work much emphasis is placed on the problem of a two leg ladder immersed in a staggered magnetic field. Although we will focus on the square lattice, our considerations may be extended to similar electronic structures appearing in other models on bipartite lattices when these exhibit antiferromagnetic correlations with an underlying sublattice structure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Seismicity Associated with the African Lithospheric Plate

O. S. Hammed, M. O. Awoyemi, W. N. Igboama, G. O. Badmus, U. C. Essien

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/20049

Knowledge of earthquake distribution pattern is very essential in exploration, understanding and forecasting of earthquake occurrence on the African plate. This paper focused on application of earthquake distribution pattern technique to investigate the regions of African plate that are prone to the seismic hazards. The earthquake epicenters for these regions were mapped out from the global seismicity map. The epicenters were located on Northern Africa (latitude 20°to 40°, longitude 0°to 50°), Southern Africa (latitude -10° to -30°, longitude 20° to 40°), Eastern Africa (latitude 10° to -25°, longitude 36° to 50°) and Western Africa (latitude 0° to 7°, longitude 0° to10°). The earthquake data corresponding with these epicenters were obtained from global earthquake catalogue. The data covered a 40-year period from January 1st 1974 to December 31st 2013 and in all, there were 58,649 earthquakes.

The results obtained revealed that all the regions on the African plate are prone to a significant level of seismic hazard except the West African region. This signifies that the seismicity of Africa is mainly concentrated in two main regions - Northern and South-eastern Africa. This implied that the seismotectonic process is marked by a relative motion alternating between left and right lateral along the African and Eurasian plate.


Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Modeling of the Interface between Source RF and the Human Body

Bouali Lazhar, Djennah Mohammed, Tahmi Redouane, Zahraoui Mahrez

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/24621

We want to write a very important part of our research by a presentation with a numerical method, which aims to solve the electromagnetic radiation effects of radio frequency source on the human body. With other words, what are the effects of the use of mobile phone on human tissue, and specifically the human head, with choosing the best interface between the mobile and the latter? Therefore, our problem is the electromagnetic field coupling between the radio frequency power source and the biological tissue (human head). To solve this problem, a system of equations placed and the choice of formulation of finite elements that coupled with the boundary integral formulation that adopts with the system. A call to the numerical modeling gives results which shows the connection between the characteristics of the exterior medium (σ,e,m) and the electromagnetic field of the RF source in the interior medium (human head). With this method we can assess the RF energy at each point of the interior medium (human head), basing on the parameters of the exterior medium, we are able to choose the best material of the interface's realization.


Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Management Optimizing in Multi Carrier Energy Systems Considering Net Zero Emission and CHP Temperature Effects

Seyed Morteza Moghimi, Gholamreza Sarlak

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/24779

Aims: The aim of the paper is to create two different models of integrated energy systems (HUBs) that improve combined approach of CHP temperature and net zero emission (NZE) effects.

Study Design: The design model includes two energy HUBs with different characteristics in one hour and twenty-four hours. The cost function of these models are composed of two parts: Part one is related to generation cost and part two is related to emission cost.

Place and Duration of Study: IAU, Iran, January 2015 - January 2016.

Methodology: The model scenario is obtained through MINLP solver of GAMS software version 24.1.2, MATLAB software version 2013 and Excel software version 2010.

Results: The simulation results have shown existence of NZE constraint can that use amounts of carriers that include pollution reduction then and in addition, with costs reduction caused by pollution reduction.

Conclusion: This paper studies the optimization in energy HUB. Also, the paper has improved combined approach of temperature and emission effects for HUB. The cost function of paper models are composed of two parts; Generation cost and emission cost. The emission penalties caused by change of carriers and generation of toxic gas. Then, combined heat and power (CHP), NZE, ambient temperature equations and constraints on models equations have been investigated. In addition, the innovations of paper are pollution calculation and optimization of the entries in terms of output, weighted coefficient of pollution, adding temperature effect on CHP performance and it’s optimization with optimization in generation by minimizing pollution, adding NZE constraint and finding the optimum economic capacity for equipment purchase without paying to additional costs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Research for Enabling Intelligent Focus for 3D Imaging

O. O. Ogunleye, D. J. Koffa, T. O. Ahmed

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/24645

This research was basically on assessing the focus levels of images from tin ball samples as an ideal test. The results and method used for the ideal test sample was then applied to real datasets of samples like the canine kidney cells that have been infected with influenza virus for 24 hours. The tin ball samples and the samples of the influenza virus was viewed with the Dual Focused Ion Beam/ Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB/SEM). The FIB/SEM facility generated images of these samples. The analysis of these images were carried out by measuring the Derivative Sharpness Function in images called the Derivative Sharpness Function using the Digital Micrograph software: the tin ball samples provided perfect results when a pixel difference of 1 was utilized less perfect result for a pixel difference of 20. Also, a defocus increment of 0.01 mm was better than a defocus image at 0.001 mm displacement. Applying parameters from the successful result of the test samples on real data sets at 0.01 mm and a pixel difference of 1 & 10 also produced reasonable results on assessing the levels of focus in real data samples such as the canine kidney cells.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Nature of Photon (Structure, Size, Duality)

Sen Nian Chen

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/25917

Based on the Maxwell theory and the principle of charges quantization, we prove that for any definite , a symmetrical electromagnetic wave beam of minimum energy possesses the basic characters: ∈ = hv , h/λ , spin=   and duality. They are the good reasons for us to treat the wave beam as a photon. A photon is consisted of ∈ -(energy) packet and ψ -(electromagnetic)wave. ∈ -packet is a circular polarized electromagnetic field wrapped by a cylindrical lateral membrane with ± charge e. They form an extremely stable structure like a “solid particle”. Under the protect of the membrane, no external electromagnetic field can break it or change its inner structure so as the photons can bring the information unchanged from the deep universe for over ten billion years. Photon ( ∈ -packet) of different frequencies V have different radius  but same shape with same ratio L/R ≈ 0.04 like a circular coin. The ∈ -packet is floated on and carried by the ψ -(EM) wave to move together. ψ -wave decides and describes the probability behavior of the ∈ -packet (s). Such structure unifies the duality of photons. Analysis of the pair production shows that symmetry will make the particles produced possess spiral structure of mass. The mass density on particles’ cross section satisfy σ = σ(R/r)k.

Open Access Review Article

The Study of Silver Nanoparticles in Basis of Slater Functions

Abel M. Maharramov, Mahammadali A. Ramazanov, Arzuman G. Gasanov, Faig G. Pashaev

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/23370

One of the variant of the molecular orbitals method - the semi-empirical Wolfsberg – Helmholz method was used in order to investigate the properties of the silver nanoparticles. For construction of molecular orbitals of Ag16   are used 5s-, 5py-, 5pz-, and 5px- valence Slater atomic orbitals of silver atoms. The analytic expression of the basis Slater functions was defined. The orbital energies, ionization potential, the total electronic energy and effective charge of atoms of silver nanoparticles were calculated by solution of equations of molecular orbitals method. The results indicate that the Ag16 nanoparticles are soft, electrophile and stabile semi-conductive material.