Open Access Original Research Article

High Microwave Absorption of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (Outer Diameter 10 – 20 nm)-Epoxy Composites in R–Band

John I. Ejembi, Ifeanyi H. Nwigboji, Zhou Wang, Diola Bagayoko, Guang- Lin Zhao

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/19439

We studied the microwave absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-epoxy composites over a continuous frequency range in R-band (26.5 – 40 GHz). The outer diameters (OD) of the MWCNTs were in the 10 – 20 nm range. We measured and analyzed the microstructures, dielectric and the microwave absorption properties of the composite samples. High attenuation factor which correlates significant absorption of microwave was observed in the 32 – 40 GHz frequency band. Microwave absorption was due to high dielectric losses, interfacial charge polarization, and the free electron mobility in the composite material. Our results also show the dependence of microwave absorption on the loading fractions of MWCNTs and on the thickness of the absorbing material. Significant microwave absorption capabilities of the composite samples were achieved at 7 to 10 wt.% of MWCNT loadings for frequencies above 32 GHz.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Graviton Field as the Source of Mass and Gravitational Force in the Modernized Le Sage’s Model

Sergey G. Fedosin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/22197

The formula for the gravitational force inside a spherical body is derived, as well as for the Newtonian force of attraction between bodies from the standpoint of the gravitons’ model. The parameters of the graviton field are estimated, including its energy density, energy flux and the cross section of interaction with matter. The equation is derived, from which it follows that the body mass is proportional to the power of radiation energy of the body from those of gravitons that interacted with the matter and gave their momentum to the body. The conclusion is made based on the theory of infinite nesting of matter that gravitons are generated at all matter levels by the densest objects such as nucleons and neutron stars.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Light Amplification and Scattering by Clusters Made of Small Active Particles: The Local Perturbation Approach

V. V. Prosentsov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/21553

The light amplification by finite active media is used extensively in modern optics applications. In this paper, the light amplification and scattering by the cluster of small active particles is studied analytically and numerically with the help of the local perturbation method and phenomenological laser theory. It is shown that light amplification is possible even for one small particle, and that the amplification is more profound when the light frequency nears the frequency of the cluster’s morphological resonance. Theoretical discussions are supplemented by numerical results for scattering by clusters which particles positioned at ordered and at slightly disordered positions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Approximations in Divisible Groups: Part II

Jeffery Ezearn, William Obeng-Denteh

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/18487

We verify some assertions in the prequel to this paper, in which certain functions which are referred to as proximity functions were introduced in order to study Dirichlet-type approximations in normed divisible groups and similar groups that enjoy a form of divisibility, for instance p-divisible groups.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Inverse Fourth-power Gravity Acting between Not Closed Inertial Masses

Shinsuke Hamaji

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/21776

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Inverse fourth power (1/r4) gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Magnetic Moments of the Interacting Particles on the Coulomb Potential: Application to Hydrogen Atom

Voicu Dolocan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/21711

By using a Coulomb potential, modified by the interaction between the magnetic moments of the electron and proton, we have calculated the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. We have obtained fine and hyperfine structure as well as the Lamb shift. All these effects are obtained from a simple formula which is a direct solution of the Schrödinger equation. The obtained results are in a good agreement with experimental data. For example, the hyperfine splitting between the energy levels of the states 1S1/2,1 and 1S1/2,o is of the order of 5.6×10-6 eV, which is the source of the famous “21 cm line” which is strongly useful to radio astronomers for tracking hydrogen in the interstellar medium of galaxies. The energy of the states nP1/2 is lower than those of the states nS1/2 (Lamb shift) because in the first case the interaction between the magnetic moments of the proton and the electron spins is diminished by the spin-orbit coupling.