Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Channel Slope on Hydraulic Jump Characteristics

Neveen B. Abdel-Mageed

Physical Science International Journal, Page 223-233
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/18527

Hydraulic jump mainly serves as an energy dissipater to dissipate excess energy of flowing water downstream of hydraulic structures, such as spillway, sluice gates etc., This research paper investigates the effect of channel slope on the characteristics of free hydraulic jump and the energy dissipation downstream the gate. Generally, this research investigates the main characteristics and parameters of the free hydraulic jump such as; the sequent depth, the relative hydraulic jump length and the relative distance to the jump. In the present research paper, these characteristics were tested in rectangular channel downstream (DS) the vertical gate. The experimental program was conducted on a re-circulating flume with 2.5 m long, 9 cm wide and 30 cm deep; with discharges range from 3 to 230 LPM. Statistical equation was developed to correlate the length, sequent depth ratio and distance of jump with the other independent parameters. Finally, clear matching of results from the length of jump was obtained.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Experiment to Measure the Speed of Alternating Electricity

Tsao Chang, Kongjia Liao, Jing Fan

Physical Science International Journal, Page 234-240
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/18792

Our experiment to measure the speed of alternating electricity is briefly reported here. It is found that the speed of alternating electricity within the metal wire is not constant, which is depended on the circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electricity is less than the speed of light. However, our recent experimental results show that at less than 3 MHz frequency region and under our circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times more than the speed of light.


Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of S-parameter for Unimplanted and Ion-implanted 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC Using Diffusion Trapping Model

V. Rathore, M. K. Rathore, S. B. Shrivastava

Physical Science International Journal, Page 241-251
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/18362

The mechanism of slow positrons has been discussed in terms of diffusion of positrons at the surface of SiC and trapping in to as-grown and irradiation induced defects. The one dimensional diffusion equation has been solved and the rate equations have been set up to describe the various processes supposed to occur when a thermalized positron encounters the SiC surface. The above model has been used to obtain the S-parameter as a function of positron energy in unimplanted and in Al+, N2+ and P+ implanted 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data. The S-parameter in unimplanted SiC decreases rapidly at low positron energy and becomes nearly constant at high energies suggesting that at low energy the trapping of positrons in shallow defects is important while at high energy the bulk effect dominates. In case of ion-implanted SiC, the S-parameter initially increases up to »3 keV and then decreases at higher energies. Thus, at very low positron energy the trapping of positrons into divacancies could be clearly distinguished. The trapping rate into divacancies is found to be proportional to the fluence used to irradiate the sample.


Open Access Original Research Article

Structural and Optical Properties of Polymer Blend Nanocomposites Based on Poly (vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol)/ TiO2 Nanoparticles

A. Ismaila, P. O. Akusu, T. O. Ahmed

Physical Science International Journal, Page 252-261
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/4768

Titanium dioxide and organic polymer blend poly (vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) based nanocomposite membranes were prepared and their chemical structure, phase relationship and optical properties investigated. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals TiO2 to be almost isomorphic (≥99% phase purity) with spherical particles having diameters in the range 25-40 nm. The composites were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) Spectrophotometry. The FTIR Spectroscopy reveals significant absorptions below 900 cm-1 to represent Titanium bonds with organic groups and Oxygen while other prominent functional groups above 900 cm-1 reflect the additivity of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl acetate. It was found that embedding inorganic nanoparticles of TiO2 into the polymer blend matrix of poly (vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) allowed for some crystallinity formation and cross-linking of the polymer composites during annealing. The XRD results show more defined peaks assigned to each phase of the composite as the TiO2 content increases from 1 to 4% weight ratio, thus indicating that Nanoparticle filler remain in the semi-crystalline polymer matrix as a separate crystalline phase, which is in good agreement with the SEM. Finally, the resonant coupling between Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) light and the collective electronic transitions of polymer nanocomposites are examined using UV-vis Spectrophotometer. The variation in the percentage absorbance and transmittance over wavelength range 200 nm-900 nm is also attributed to TiO2 Nanoparticles (Nps) content        (1-4%) in the samples.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Modified Simple Equation Method and Its Application to Solve NLEEs Associated with Engineering Problem

M. Ashrafuzzaman Khan, M. Ali Akbar

Physical Science International Journal, Page 262-282
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/18598

The modified simple equation (MSE) method is an important mathematical tool for searching closed-form solutions to nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In the present paper, by using the MSE method, we derive some impressive solitary wave solutions to NLEES via the strain wave equation in microstructured solids which is a very important equation in the field of engineering. The solutions contain some free parameters and for particulars values of the parameters some known solutions are derived. The solutions exhibit necessity and reliability of the MSE method.


Open Access Original Research Article

Charge Radii of B and D Mesons in a Quark Model with Two Loop Static Potential

K. K. Pathak, Namita Sharma Bordoloi, D. K. Choudhury

Physical Science International Journal, Page 283-291
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/18709

We study the effects of two loop static potential on the charge radii of heavy light flavoured mesons in an Improved QCD potential model.The estimated value of charge radii of heavy-light mesons in V-scheme is then compared with other available data and found to be within the limit of other result.