Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-Array Hydro-Geoelectric Characterization of a Crystalline Basement Complex Environment

O. O. Adeoye-Oladapo, K. A. Mogaji, M. I. Oladapo

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/17444

The efficiency of integrated geoelectric arrays study was undertaken on a ubiquitous shallow Precambrian Crystalline Basement Complex rocks terrain of School of Earth and Mineral Sciences (SEMS) of The Federal University of Technology, Akure, southwestern Nigeria. Geophysical data acquisition was undertaken on fifteen (15) traverses in the area using Gradient, Dipole–Dipole and Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) techniques. The field data were interpreted using both manual and computer iterations. The results are presented as map, sounding curves and sections. The results of the Gradient array, Dipole-Dipole and Schlumberger VES enabled qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative hydrogeophysical evaluations respectively. Both Gradient and Dipole-Dipole arrays indicate existence of fairly favourable hydro-geoelectric setting on the north central precinct of the area. The combined results of both arrays informed the location of 13 Schlumberger-VES points in the favourable hydro-geophysical environment. The Schlumberger VES results show that clayey overburden materials (31 – 58 Ω-m) with thickness varying between 8.7 and 16.9 m that can plausibly support abstraction of some quantity of groundwater underlie the fairly favourable northern flank. However, a fractured basement column delineated beneath VES 7 may sustain fairly adequate groundwater yield. Despite the high cost of implementing multiple geoelectrical arrays in groundwater projects, the outcome may justify the expenditure especially in cases where point of water abstraction is successfully identified principally where properties have been developed in a ubiquitous shallow bedrock environment similar to the terrain of study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Electrical and Photoelectric Properties of Crystal InGaTe2

E. M. Gojayev, A. G. Kazim-zade, V. M. Salmanov, A. G. Guseynov, U. S. Abdurahmanova, R. M. Mamedov

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/18553

The electroconductivity, photoconductivity and relaxation curves of the nonequilibrium photoconductivity in InGaTe2  crystals under  incandescent lamp light sources and laser light have been experimentally investigated. It is shown that the optical absorption in the InGaTe2  due to indirect and direct optical transitions, the band gap of 1.02 eV and 1.42 eV, respectively. Acceptor centers are found, at a depth of 0.203 eV and 0.801 eV. At high levels optical excitation in InGaTe2  observed two-photon absorption. It was found that the nonequilibrium photoconductivity observed in InGaTe2  crystals under the action of 1st and 2nd harmonic of neodymium laser radiation, due to the impurity, bipolar and the two-photon photoconductivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Densities and Viscosities of Binary Mixtures of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Water at Temperatures (288.15 to 313.15) K

Vahid Moeini, Shahab Araste Manesh, Seyed Hojatolah Rahimi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/21416

Viscosities and densities of polyvinyl pyrrolidone + Water (PVP / H2O) mixtures were measured at several temperatures between (288.15 and 313.15) K under atmospheric pressure. The measured compression factor was satisfactorily correlated by a simple third-order polynomial with respect to temperature. The adjustment parameters are determined and presented. The comparison of correlated and experimental results indicated the applicability of the proposed model for compressibility factor predication of (PVP / H2O) mixtures.


Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of the Penning Ionization Gauge (PIG) Ion Source in Attaining High Energy Rydberg States

Pennan Chinnasamy

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/20646

Aims: The Morgan’s Lab, at Wesleyan University – Connecticut, experimentally probed the dynamics of an atom/molecule using Semi-Classical approach. The experimental setup at Morgan’s Lab is designed to generate a neutral atomic or molecular beam, which is then excited with a finely tuned laser to Rydberg states; the highest quantized energy states the electron can be in before ionization.

Study Design: In this current study, the potential of the Penning Ionization Gauge (PIG) as an ion source was evaluated for the Hydrogen atom.

Place and Duration of Study: Physics Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, USA, between June 2007 and August 2009.

Methodology: The experimental setup is designed to generate a neutral atomic or molecular beam, which is then excited with a finely tuned laser to Rydberg states; the highest quantized energy states the electron can be in before ionization. The setup consists of an ion beam system consisting of a fast- metastable machine, vacuum pumping systems, an oven, a laser system consisting of a master YAG laser and a slave tunable dye laser, a second harmonic generator for doubling the frequency of the laser beam, Stark plate assembly, an ion detection system and a computer based data acquisition system with LABVIEW software.

Results: The PIG found to populate the Hydrogen Rydberg states at 300% times more than the conventional ion source (8 µ Amp Vs. 2 µ Amp). Such high populations of ions lead to a high population of Rydberg states which in turn aided the overall experiment.

Conclusion: A better understanding of the dynamics of an electron can aid experiments in condensed matter physics and molecular physics. Obtaining high population of Rydberg states can aid in increasing electron dynamic experiments by increasing the resolution of the scaled-energy absorption spectra. Penning Ionization Gauge (PIG) showed to have a better potential in producing high energy Rydberg states for the hydrogen gas.


Open Access Original Research Article

Application of EDXRF in the Determination of the Abundance and Distribution of Arsenic along a Federal Highway in Northern Nigeria

M. A. Onoja, I. G. E. Ibeanu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/16789

The transmission-emission technique of EDXRF was used to determine the abundance and distribution of Arsenic in soil along a Federal Highway in northern Nigeria. Depth profile of the element was investigated. Subsequently, top soils within a depth of 5 cm were collected along parallel and perpendicular transects and analyzed for arsenic. Samples were crushed and ground into fine, near-homogenous particle-sized powder and pelletized for irradiation and counting. Preliminary investigation revealed that within the depth considered, the concentration of arsenic was decreasing and increasing with increasing depth. The minimum level of arsenic of 17.7 mg/L was detected in the study area at a distance of 100 m from the road, while the maximum level of 110 mg/L was detected by the roadside; and the mean concentration of the element ranged 21.6 – 101.9 mg/L with a background loading factor (BLF) of between 1.1 and 5.0 which is suggestive of an environmental pollution. The data indicated initial decrease in arsenic concentration; however this pattern was reversed with increase in distance from the road. These data, in addition to that of the depth profile were clear indications that the observed arsenic concentrations were not due to vehicular emissions, rather, they have geochemical significance.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Suspended Particles on Magneto- Gravitational Instability under the Influence of Electrical Resistivity

R. K. Pensia, A. K. Patidar, V. Shrivastava

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2015/10254

The problem of magneto-gravitational instability of rotating viscous, electrical conducting medium in the presence of suspended particles is studied Incorporating, thermal conductivity, and radiative heat-loss function. The Normal mode analysis is applied to derive the dispersion relation and it is discussed for wave propagation in longitudinal and transverse direction. Applying Routh-Hurwitz criterion the stability of the medium is discussed. The effect of suspended particles, magnetic field, rotation, resistivity and viscosity, Jean’s criterion determines the condition of gravitational instability of gas particle medium. From the curves, we find that the effect of suspended particles, viscosity and temperature dependent heat-loss function have a stabilizing effect while density dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of an instability.