Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Paramagnetism Analyze

T. Ewetumo, J. E. Orokhe

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v21i230096

One of the quantities of fundamental importance in describing magnetic phenomena and materials is the magnetic moment. This research focused on the development of a paramagnetic materials analyzer using locally sourced materials to determine magnetic moment of magnetic materials. This involves the design of a sensing unit. The sensing unit comprised of a colpitts oscillator, preamplifier and shaping circuit, K – type thermocouple sensor, thermocouple amplifier, microcontroller, matrix keypad and a LCD. The developed instrument was calibrated using a known standard magnetic moment value of iron. The instrument was tested and it was able to determine the magnetic moment of available magnetic materials with a standard deviation of 0.0163. The value of magnetic moment obtained for the available known materials fall within the range of values obtained from literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Effects of Solvents on the Structural, Electronic and Thermodynamic Properties of Rosiglitazone Based on Density Functional Theory

R. A. Ismail, A. B. Suleiman, A. S. Gidado, A. Lawan, A. Musa

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v21i230103

Rosiglitazone ( C18H19N3O3S ) is an anti-diabetic drug that reduces insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. The parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), HOMO, LUMO, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, dipole moment, thermodynamic properties, total energy and vibrational frequencies and intensities of the Rosiglitazone molecule in gas phase and in solvents (Water, Ethanol, DMSO and Acetonitrile) were calculated based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) using standard basis sets: B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p). Windows version of Gaussian 09 was used for all the calculations. From the results obtained, the solvents have little influence on the optimized parameters of the molecule. The highest HOMO value of -5.433 eV was found in gas phase showing that the molecule will best donate electron in the gas phase, followed by ethanol in comparison with other solvents. The values of the HOMO were observed to increase with the decrease in dielectric constants of the solvents across all the basis sets used. The lowest LUMO energy of -1.448 eV was found to be in ethanol which shows that the molecule will best accept electron in ethanol compared to the gas phase and other solvents. The largest HOMO-LUMO gap of 4.285 eV was found in water which shows its higher kinetic stability and less chemical reactivity compared to other solvents and in the gas phase. The chemical softness of the molecule was found to decrease as the dielectric constants of the solvents increased namely from ethanol to water. The chemical hardness was found to slightly increase with the increase in dielectric constants of the solvents. The highest value of the dipole moment of 4.6874 D was found in water indicating that the molecule will have the strongest intermolecular interactions in water compared to other solvents and in the gas phase. The total energy increased as the dielectric constants of the solvents decreased from water to ethanol. The vibrational frequencies and intensities increased as the dielectric constants of the solvents increased from ethanol to water. The results confirmed the effects of solvents on the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of the studied molecule and will be useful in the design and development of rosiglitazone as an anti-diabetic drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Progress in Reducing the Uncertainty of Measurement of Planck’s Constant in Terms of the Information Approach

Boris Menin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v21i230104

Aims: The purpose of this work is to prove that only by implementing a weighted and thorough theoretical information approach to the development of a physical and mathematical model for measuring Planck’s constant, it is possible to prepare a reasonable justification for calculating the required relative uncertainty.

Place and Duration of Study: Mechanical & Refrigeration Consultation Expert, between June 2018 and February 2019.

Methodology: Using the principles of information theory and similarity theory, a dimensionless parameter (comparative uncertainty) was formulated to compare the experimental results of measurements of Planck’s constant and the simulated data.

Results: Examples of the application of the proposed original method to measure Planck’s constant using the Kibble balance and X-ray crystal density methods are given.

Conclusion: The proposed information-oriented approach is theoretically justified and does not include such concepts as a statistically significant trend, cumulative values of consensus or statistical control, which are characteristic of the statistical expert tool adopted in CODATA. We tried to show how the mathematical and, apparently, rather arbitrary expert formalism can be replaced by a simple, theoretically grounded postulate on the use of information in measurements.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Air Mass on the Performance of a Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Module in Kakamega

Ligavo Margdaline Musanga, Mageto Maxwell, Wafula Henry Barasa, Emmanuel Yeri Kombe

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v21i230106

This paper investigates the outdoor performance of a 20 W monocrystalline silicon solar module in relation to air mass (AM) in Kakamega. Direct measurement of air mass and module output parameters from experimental setup was done in Kakamega at a location 0.28270 N and 34.7519 E. Experimental results showed a decrease in ISC and VOC with increasing AM. The maximum output power produced by the module reduced with an increase in AM. Maximum power was therefore seen to be produced at noon in this region. VOC increased from 19.47 to 20.04 then decreased to 19.49 V while ISC increased from 0.36 to 1.19 then decreased to 0.48A.  It was observed that both the FF and   of a monocrystalline solar module increase with increase in air mass. The module performed better during the afternoon than morning and evening hours with the peak performance observed close to AM 1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrating Security in Process Control Loop: A Case for Proportional-Integral-Derivative Algorithm

Omagbemi Oghogho Weyinmi, Mbonu Ekene Samuel

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v21i230107

This work presented mathematical models and flow charts for implementing secure Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) algorithm in a process control loop. A number of security solutions have been recommended and some deployed in a process control system. Majority of these solutions are network based while others leverage on good security policy. A security solution based on network can be effective for securing control system from external threat agents who have to first of all, gain access to the control network. But for an internal threat agent or a disgruntled insider who does not only have the right privilege but also has a good understanding of the control system's operation, a network security is definitely not going to be effective. This work used system analysis to identify the possible things an internal threat agent can do to manipulate a control system using PID control algorithm as a case study. A secured PID mathematical model is proposed as a proactive mitigation technique to embedding security in a process control loop. As ongoing research, future work will concentrate on simulation and prototyping of the secured algorithm presented in this work. The proposed secured algorithm will not only serve as an additional security layer in industrial control system (ICS) but will also be relevant in the control domain of Internet of Things.