Open Access Original Research Article

Calculation of Relative Uncertainty When Measuring Physical Constants: CODATA Technique Vs Information Method

Boris Menin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i430136

Aims: To analyze the results of measurements of the Boltzmann, gravitational and Planck constants using a theoretically sound information approach in comparison with the CODATA technique.

Place and Duration of Study: Beer-Sheba, between January 2019 and May 2019.

Methodology: Using the concepts of information theory, the amount of information contained in the measurement model of a physical constant is calculated. This allows us to find the value of the comparative uncertainty proposed by Brillouin, and the achievable value of the relative uncertainty, taking into account the basic SI values used on each test bench when measuring physical constants.

Results: An unsolved question was to find the amount of information contained in the model of the measurement of a physical constant, which can be converted to the value of the achievable absolute uncertainty. This value now has an exact analytical formula. It is notoriously difficult to study the consistency of the measurement results of physical constants, but the proposed mathematical tool, developed using the concepts of information theory, allow us to simplify the analysis completely.

Conclusion: The information method leads to an intuitive and logically justified calculation of the relative uncertainty, which is compatible with the current practice of CODATA. This allows you to identify the threshold discrepancy between the model and the object under study. Proof of this is the calculation of the achievable value of the relative uncertainty when measuring the Boltzmann, gravitational and Planck constants. The proposed information-oriented method for calculating the relative uncertainty in measuring physical constants represents a new tool when formulating a modernized SI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Concentration of Uranium and Thorium in Granite Rock in Kadugli, Sudan Using γ - ray Spectroscopy

I. A. Alnour

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i430137

The aim of the present study is to determine the elemental concentration in (ppm) and specific activity in (Bqkg-1) of Uranium (238U) and Thorium (232Th) contained in the granite rock of a special geological area in Sudan (Kadugli).

The elemental concentrations and specific activity of 238U and 232Th in granite rock were determined by using the gross gamma counting technique (γ-ray spectroscopy). The analyses were performed for daughter decaying of 238U and 232Th; which are Pb-214, Bi-214 for 238U and Tl-208, Ac-228 for 232Th.

The experiments were carried out at the Nuclear Laboratory, Physics Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia using the facilities of gamma ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector (HPGe) of efficiency 20%.

Granite samples were collected from Hagar El-Mlik area, 2 km from the central of Kadugli city in southern Kordofan state, Sudan. The rock was crushed and ground to fine powder and sieved with a particle size less than 120 μm. To calculate the concentrations of 238U and 232Th in the granite rock, standard reference materials provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used.

The average of elemental concentrations and specific activity of uranium were obtained in the range (1.8 ± 0.11) to (0.80 ± 0.08) ppm, and (22.11 ± 1.30) to (9.79 ± 0.98) Bqkg-1 respectively, while (16.22±1.84) to (7.45±1.34) ppm and (65.42±7.40) to (29.50 ± 5.39) Bqkg-1 are the average concentration and specific activity of thorium. Moreover, average activity concentrations (Bqkg-1) for granite samples have been compared with the typical values of different countries.

232Th shows high activity concentration (65.42±7.4) Bqkg-1 whereas, 238U activity value is distinctly lower than the corresponding ones obtained from other countries and, in general, all results are acceptable and fall within the range given in UNSCEAR report 1993.

Open Access Original Research Article

Higher-order Spectral Filtering Effects on the Evolution of Stationary Dissipative Solitons

Aladji Kamagaté, Ronald Tehini, Aliou Bamba

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i430138

A semianalytical method to study the effects of the higher-order spectral filtering in the cubic-quintic complex Swift-Hohenberg equation (CSHE) through the dynamics of one soliton was applied. The approach is based on a reduction from an infinite-dimensional dynamical dissipative system to a finite-dimensional model. This formulation is helpful to study the ground state of the soliton dynamic since it depends on a trial function and a good set of parameters. With real coefficients, the CSHE exhibits stationary dissipative solitons in space with the equation parameters, and the higher-order spectral filtering has a real impact on the cartographies of stationary soliton domain. The detailed analysis reveals the effects of spectral filtering term on the stationary soliton parameters, and displays that it differently influences the cubic and quintic terms of the CSHE. The results highlight the major influence of the spectral filtering on the temporal width of the stationary soliton whereas it does not have a real impact on the amplitude and the spatial width.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) Model for the Analysis of Frequency of Monthly Rainfall in Osun State, Nigeria

Samuel Olorunfemi Adams, Bello Mustapha, Auta Irinew Alumbugu

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i430139

The Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model is proposed for Osun State monthly rainfall data and the analysis was based on probability time series modeling approach. The Plot of the original data shows that the time series is stationary and the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test did not suggest otherwise. The graph further displays evidence of seasonality and it was removed by seasonal differencing. The plots of the ACF and PACF show spikes at seasonal lags respectively, suggesting SARIMA (1, 0, 1) (2, 1, 1). Though the diagnostic check on the model favoured the fitted model, the Auto Regressive parameter was found to be statistically insignificant and this led to a reduced SARIMA (1, 0, 1) (1, 1, 1)  model that best fit the data and was used to make forecast.

Open Access Review Article

(Kink; Kink; Kink; Kink) and (Pulse; Pulse; Pulse; Pulse) Solutions of a Set of Four Equations Modeled in a Nonlinear Hybrid Electrical Line with Crosslink Capacitor

Tiague Takongmo Guy, Jean Roger Bogning

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i430135

The physics system that helps us in the study of this paper is a nonlinear hybrid electrical line with crosslink capacitor. Meaning it is composed of two different nonlinear hybrid parts Linked by capacitors with identical constant capacitance. We apply Kirchhoff laws to the circuit of the line to obtain new set of four nonlinear partial differential equations which describe the simultaneous dynamics of four solitary waves. Furthermore, we apply efficient mathematical methods based on the identification of coefficients of basic hyperbolic functions to construct exact solutions of those set of four nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained results have enabled us to discover that, one of the two nonlinear hybrid electrical line with crosslink capacitor that we have modeled accepts the simultaneous propagation of a set of four solitary waves of type (Pulse; Pulse; Pulse; Pulse), while the other accepts the simultaneous propagation of a set of four solitary waves of type (Kink; Kink; Kink; Kink) when certain conditions we have established are respected. We ameliorate the quality of the signals by changing the sinusoidal waves that are supposed to propagate in the hybrid electrical lines with crosslink capacitor to solitary waves which are propagating in the new nonlinear hybrid electrical lines; we therefore, facilitate the choice of the type of line relative to the type of signal that we want to transmit.