Open Access Short Research Article

Quantum Energy of a Particle in a Finite-potential Well Based Upon Golden Metric Tensor

I. I. Ewa, S. X. K. Howusu, L. W. Lumbi

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i330134

In our previous work titled “Riemannian Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Finite-Potential Well", we constructed the Riemannian Laplacian operator and used it to obtain the Riemannian Schrodinger equation for a particle in a finite-potential well. In this work, we solved the golden Riemannian Schrodinger equation analytically to obtain the particle energy. The solution resulted in two expressions for the energy of a particle in a finite-potential well. One of the expressions is for the odd energy levels while the other is for the even energy levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Breaking of Symmetry in Gravitational Attraction and the Random Motion of a Hydrogen Gas Molecule

Choong Gun Sim

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i330130

This paper examines symmetry breaking in gravitational attraction between gluons within a proton and shows that the random motion of hydrogen gas molecules might be caused by this breaking of symmetry. Anisotropic gravitational field is applied to a gluon elementary particle. Generally, gravitational force is offset when masses face each other. A progressive concept of gravitational attraction that gravitational force is also offset when gravitational field lines being shielded by each other is presented. The rigidification of vacuum by color-charged mass is introduced to explain the shielding of gravitational field lines. Both the gluon’s anisotropic gravitational field and the shielding mechanism demonstrate that the symmetry of gravitational attraction can be broken within a proton. The asymmetric gravitational attraction produced within a proton inevitably accelerates proton. Thus, a hydrogen gas molecule with independent acceleration vectors at the two hydrogen atoms exhibits the combination of vibrating, rotating and translation motions. Atomic vibrations in a solid are also caused by this acceleration.

Open Access Original Research Article

MODFLOW’s River Package: Part 2: Correction, Combining Analytical and Numerical Approaches

Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i330131

Most widely used integrated hydrologic models still describe the flow interaction between streams and aquifers using primitive early concepts. In the previous article the shortcomings of the methodology were shown in great details. In this second part means are presented by which improvements can be introduced into the procedures.  Accuracy and numerical efficiency will be improved. The article describes in details the proposed alternatives for both the saturated and the unsaturated connections. In the article reference is made specifically to the code MODFLOW.  Most of the other integrated hydrologic models used for large-scale regional studies apply essentially the same methodology to estimate seepage.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Vacancy Energy in Metals: Cu, Ag, Ni, Pt, Au, Pd, Ir and Rh

T. H. Akande, F. Matthew-Ojelabi, G. S. Agunbiade, E. B. Faweya, A. O. Adeboje

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i330132

The predictive calculations of vacancy formation energies in metals: Cu, Ag, Ni, Pt, Au, Pd, Ir and Rh are presented. The energy is given as a function of electron density. Density functional theory underestimates the vacancy formation energy when structural relaxation is included. The unrelaxed mono-vacancy formation, unrelaxed di-vacancy formation, unrelaxed di-vacancy binding and low index surface energies of the fcc transition metals Cu, Ag, Ni, Pt, Au, Pd, Ir and Rh has been calculated using embedded atom method. The values for the vacancy formation energies agree with the experimental value. We also calculate the elastic constants of the metals and the heat of solution for the binary alloys of the selected metals. The average surface energies calculated by including the crystal angle between planes (hkl) and (111) correspond to the experiment for Cu, Ag, Ni, Pt and Pd. The calculated mono-vacancy formation energies are in reasonable agreement with available experimental values for Cu, Ag, Au and Rh. The values are higher for Pt and Ir while smaller values were recorded for Ni and Pd. The unrelaxed di-vacancy binding energy calculated agrees with available experimental values in the case of Cu, Ni, Pt and Au. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Balance Estimation Using Integrated GIS-Based WetSpass Model in the Birki Watershed, Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Esayas Meresa, Abbadi Girmay, Amare Gebremedhin

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2019/v22i330133

This study aims to estimate long-term average annual and seasonal water balance components for Birki watershed using WetSpass model with the integrated geospatial modeling approach with ten years’ hydro-meteorological and biophysical data of the watershed. Both primary and secondary data were collected using both field survey and disk-based data collection methods. The WetSpass model was used for data analysis purposes. The finding showed that in the summer season the annual groundwater recharge is 24.1 mm year-1 (96.5%), winter season mean groundwater recharge is 0.8 mm year-1 (3.5%) and yearly mean groundwater recharge is 24.9 mm year-1, Surface runoff yearly mean value is 40.6 mm year-1, Soil evaporation yearly mean value is 10.8 mm year-1, Evapotranspiration yearly mean value is 60.8 mm year-1, Intersection loss yearly mean value is 17 mm year-1, and Transpiration loss yearly value is 6.8 mm year-1 in the entire watershed. The mean annual precipitation, which is 573 mm, is contributed to 7.4%, 7.1% and 85.5% recharge to the groundwater, to surface runoff, and evapotranspiration, respectively. Annually 1.1205 million m3 water recharges into the groundwater table as recharge from the precipitation on the entire watershed. The contribution of this study could be used as baseline information for regional water resource experts, policy makers and researchers for further investigation. It can also be concluded that integrated WetSpass and GIS-based models are good indicators for estimating and understanding of water balance components in a given watershed to implement an integrated watershed management plan for sustainable utilization and sustainable development.