Open Access Short Research Article

Consequent Quantum Mechanics by Applying 8-Dimensional Spinors in the Dirac Equation

Antal Rockenbauer

Physical Science International Journal, Page 27-31
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i130171

Aims: A consequent quantum mechanics was developed by rendering operators also for the charge and rest mass. In this formalism the Dirac equation was extended by applying 8-dimensional spinors for the decomposition of square root in the covariant equation of special relativity.

Results: The charge and mass operators defined by 8–dimensional spinors commute with the Hamiltonian of electron and positron in electromagnetic field, but they do not commute for neutrino and quarks.

Conclusions: For neutrino the expectation values of the rest mass and charge are zero allowing these particles moving with the speed of light. The momentum of neutrino commutes with the Hamiltonian thus it has a well-defined value for the three types of neutrinos explaining why the neutrinos can oscillate. For quarks neither the rest mass nor the charge operators commute with the Hamiltonian, thus the fractional charge and renormalized mass can be considered as expectation values in the hadron states. Since any charge measurements should give eigenvalues of its operator, no fractional charge can be detected excluding possibility of observing free quarks.  

Open Access Original Research Article

The Kinetics of the Adsorption Process of Cr (VI) in Aqueous Solution Using Neem Seed Husk (Azadirachta indica) Activated Carbon

A. A. Danmallam, W. L. Dabature, N. Y. Pindiga, B. Magaji, M. A. Aboki, D. Ibrahim, U. A. S. Zanna, M. S. Muktar

Physical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i130169

The aim of this research is the study of physico-chemical properties activated carbon prepared from agricultural by product such as Neem Seed Husk (NSH) which is abundantly available in our environment The Activated Carbon (AC) was prepared using H3PO4 as activating agent and carbonized at 300°C for two hours. The results shows that the activated process was successful and can compete favorably with commercial activated carbon. The prepared activated carbon was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion X-ray (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The percentage removal of Cr(VI) increased with increase in process parameters such as adsorbent dose, time and temperature while there was a decrease with increase in pH and Initial concentration. It was established from the results that activated carbon produced from Neem seed husk has adsorption capacity which could remove 99.75% Cr (VI) at optimum process conditions (pH-2.0, Cr(VI) concentration-10 mg/L, adsorbent dose 0.5 g/L, Temperature 70 c and contact time 30 mins.). Thus, the adsorption method using activated carbon produced from biomass was used effectively for removing Cr(VI) in a stock solution, seems to be an economical and worthwhile alternative over other conventional methods, because of it availability, low price and multi-purposes. The adsorption data fitted well into Freundlich and Langmuir with correlation coefficient (R2) 0.9522 and 0.9403 respectively. The kinetics of the adsorption process was tested through pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation for with (R2) 0.993, while the pseudo-first-order was found to be 0.928. The study provided an effective use of low-cost activated carbon as a valuable source of adsorbents for the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Analysis of the Impact of Rain Attenuated Signal on Mobile Cellular Terrestrial Links in Jos, Nigeria

O. J. Igbekele, B. J. Kwaha, E. P. Ogherohwo, J. T. Zhimwang

Physical Science International Journal, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i130170

The 12 to 18 GHz frequency bands are commonly deployed for mobile network metropolitan microwave radio links using small antennas and low transmit power to deliver high channel capacities. Jos Plateau region with the blend of tropical and temperate climate is characterized with high severe rain impairment on terrestrial links operating at frequencies above 10 GHz, for mobile network backhaul system remaining a big challenge in the design of a microwave radio link. Therefore, this study presents the performance analysis of the impact of rain attenuated signal on mobile cellular terrestrial links in Jos under clear sky and rain condition. The cell site locations were divided in two clusters of Jos lowland and Jos highland. Drive test tools, radio local monitor terminal (LMT) and Davis weather station were employed over radio links interconnecting live 2G/3G nodal network, for the measurement of the mean value of one minute rainfall rates and the corresponding rain-induced signal. The results obtained revealed that more budget provision was obtained by the study calculation in over 60% of the study centers. More so, when the study fade margin estimation was put to test, up to 4.27 Mbps download speed was achieved, the speed almost as high as the highest speed, 4.29 Mbps recorded under the clear sky for ITU-R. More so, as low as 0.7% packet loss was recorded against the study link margin budget under same rain condition causing over 62.3% for PLA010 in Jos lowland cluster. Also, instances of slight under-budgeting were observed in highland clusters PLA064 and PLA025 as 35.01 dB and 34.99 dB respectively when tested with the Study calculated values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterizing the Phase Transitions between Stable Equilibrium and Periodic Oscillations in Predator-prey Population Dynamics: A Theoretical Appraisal from an Extended Nicholson & Bailey Model

Jean Béguinot

Physical Science International Journal, Page 32-45
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i130172

Multi-phase patterns with more or less sharp phase transitions, first highlighted in thermodynamics, have progressively revealed having wider relevance, being encountered in various other contexts, for example fluid mechanics, and can even occur in the interactive dynamics in biological populations involving two or more species that share opposite interests, such as predator-prey or parasite-host pairs of species. In the latter, the pattern of abundances of both interacting species usually reaches an equilibrium level which can be either stable or cyclic (with large periodic oscillations in the latter case). Both alternative modes are separated by well-define boundaries and, accordingly, can relevantly be described in terms of phases and phase transitions. While this has recently been approached from very general perspectives, a more focused analysis is still lacking, regarding the nature of the phase transitions between stable and oscillatory equilibria and – still more importantly – how the nature of these phase transitions may possibly depend (or not) on the biological and contextual factors driving the parasite-host interactive dynamics. These issues are addressed hereafter, on a theoretical basis, yet intimately related to the real field context, by taking advantage of a newly derived extension of the classical Nicholson & Bailey model of parasite-host interactions. Highlighted in particular are the possibility of either first-order, second-order or continuous phase-transitions, depending on (i) the respective own dynamics of both host and parasite, (ii) the density of feeding resource for the host, (iii) the level of migration exchange in a meta-population context.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamic Nano Clusters of Water on Waters Catholyte and Anolyte: Electrolysis with Nano Membranes

Ignat Ignatov, Georgi Gluhchev, Stoil Karadzhov, Iliana Yaneva, Nedyalka Valcheva, Georgi Dinkov, Teodora Popova, Toshka Petrova, Dimitar Mehandjiev, Igor Akszjonovics

Physical Science International Journal, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2020/v24i130173

The electrolysis is a base of many industrial processes like galvanotechnics and galvanoplastics. It is also used for hydrogen, and oxygen production. Different products such as H2, NaOH, HCl, heavy water (D2O) and others could be obtained as well depending on the manufacturing conditions. They can influence significantly the vital processes in living organisms either activating or diminishing their rate [1,2]. The catholyte and anolyte waters are produced in the cathode and anode parts of the electrolysis cell. The catholyte is alkaline and has a negative oxidation reduction potential (ORP). The anolyte is acidic and of positive ORP. The value for ORP is in milivolts (mV). It was demonstrated that the catholyte stimulated the metabolitic processes and immune system, and had an anti-oxidant action. Recent investigation of catholyte water on Graffi tumor in hamsters has demonstrated its antitumor effect [3]. The anolyte however has demonstrated strong biocidal and antiinflamatory action [4,5] Cha, Chun-Nam et al. [6]. In spite of many investigations carried out all over the world no satisfactory explanation of these properties has been suggested until now. In the report a model of the number of water molecules related to the energy of hydrogen bonds is described.