Electrical and Optical Properties of Boron Doped Zinc Oxide Thin-film Deposited by Metal-organic Chemical Vapour Deposition for Photovoltaic Application

Duke Ateyh Oeba *

Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida-1710, South Africa.

Cliff Orori Mosiori

Department of Mathematics and Physics, Technical University of Mombasa, P.O. Box- 90420 -80100, GPO Mombasa, Kenya.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Globally, there is a high demand for clean, sustainable and renewable energy for domestic and industrial use. Conventional photovoltaic cell technology relies heavily on crystalline silicon wafers which render silicon-based solar cells expensive due to the initial cost of production and required complex deposition methods. Due to these challenges, great research interest is now directed towards thin-film solar cells. In this work, the metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method was chosen in the preparation of boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO: B) thin film onto a glass slide substrate. The prepared ZnO: B thin films were characterized and optimized as a window layer for solar light trapping. The transmittance of the ZnO: B films varied between 70% and 81% for boron concentration ranging from 0.0 M to 0.06 M.  With the increase in boron concentration, bandgap and resistivity of the ZnO: B varied from 2.96 to 3.72 eV and 120 Ω-cm to 58 Ω-cm, respectively. Based on the results obtained, we believe that ZnO: B is suitable as a window layer for solar light trapping in the fabrication of a photovoltaic cell.

Keywords: Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, ZnO, B, optical properties, electrical properties, photovoltaic cell

How to Cite

Oeba, D. A., & Mosiori, C. O. (2022). Electrical and Optical Properties of Boron Doped Zinc Oxide Thin-film Deposited by Metal-organic Chemical Vapour Deposition for Photovoltaic Application. Physical Science International Journal, 26(7), 48–55. https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2022/v26i7756


Download data is not yet available.


Oeba DA. Electrical and optical characterization of Cu4SnS4 and CdS: B thin films for photovoltaic applications, Kenyatta university, Nairobi-Kenya; 2018.

Charnwit R. Optimal design of solar cell front-contact grid, Chulalongkorn University, Chulalongkorn; 2004.

Holonyak Jr, Nm Dallesasse JM. University of Illinois,. Semiconductor devices with native aluminum oxide regions. U.S. Patent. 1994;5:373:522.

Sandeep M. Photovoltaic cells based on copper phthalocyanine and cadmium sulphide heterojunction, University of Kentucky, Kentucky; 2008.

Echendu OK, Dejene FB, Dharmadasa IM, Eze FC. Characteristics of nanocrystallite- ZnO produced by low-cost electrochemical technique for thin film photovoltaic application: The influence of deposition voltage. Int. J. Photoeng. 2017:3989432.

Altosaar M, Danilson M, Kauk M, Krustok J, Mellikov E, Raudoja J, Timmo K, Varema T. Further developments in CIS monograin layer solar cells technology. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2005;87(1-4):25-32.

Oeba DA, Mosiori CO. Effect of Dyes Nano-Material Electrodes for Exploration of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Int. J. Thin. Film. Sci. Tec, 2020;9(1):51-55.

Liang H, Gordon RG. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine-doped zinc oxide and their application to amorphous silicon solar cells. Journal of Materials Science. 2007;42(15):6388-6399.

Hu J, Gordon RG. Deposition of boron doped zinc oxide films and their electrical and optical properties. Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 1992;139(7): 2014-2022.

Dzhafarov T, Ougul F, Karabay I.. Formation of CdZnS thin films by Zn diffusion. Journal Physica D: 2006;39:3221-3225.

Baines T, Zoppi G, Durose K, D Major J. Use of ZnO:O and CdSe as Window layers for CdTe Photovoltaics; 2017.

Lee JH, Yi JS, Yang KJ, Park JH, Oh RD. Electrical and optical properties of boron doped CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition. Thin Solid Films. 2003;431:344-348.

Ugwu I, Okeke E, Okeke I. Study of the UV/ optical properties of FeS2 thin films deposited by solution growth techniques. Greener Journal of Physical Sciences 2001;1:13 –20.

Wenas WW, Yamada A, Takahashi K, Yoshino M, Konagai M. Electrical and optical properties of boron‐doped ZnO thin films for solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Journal of Applied Physics. 1991;70(11):7119-7123.

Bedir M, Öztaş M, Kara H. Effect of the substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of spray-deposited ZnO:B films. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2012; 24(2):499-506.

Ashour A. The physical characteristics of Cu2S/ ZnO thin-film solar Cell.Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials 2006;8:1447 – 145.

Mulla F, Al-Dhafiri M, Al-Ayashi M, Al-Shammari S. Synthesis and characterisation of chlorine doped cadmium sulphide (ZnO:Cl) nanoparticles on flexible substrates. International Journal of Nanoparticles. 2005;2:476-482.

Tauc J. Amorphous and liquid semiconductors, Plenum press, New York; 1974.

Mosiori CO, Oeba DA. Studies on Cd1Se0. 6Te0. 4 Thin Films by Spectroscopic and Diffractometer Characterization. Traektoriâ Nauki= Path of Science. 2017;3(9).

Saliha I, Muhsin Z, Yasemin C, Mujdat C. Optical characterization of the CdZn(S1-xSex)2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis method. Optica Applicata 2006;36:1-9.

Mogunde CM. Optical and electrical characterization of CdxSe1-X s and Cu2Sthin films for solar cell application Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya; 2016.

Odin IN, Chukichev V M, Grin'ko VV. Luminescent Properties of Boron-Doped ZnO and CdSe Crystals. Neorganicheskie Materialy. 1999;31(11):1302-1303.

Mosiori CO. Electrical and optical characterization of CdxZn1-x S and PbS thin films for photovoltaic applications, Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya; 2012.

Chen XL, Geng XH, Xue JM, Zhang DK, Hou GF, Zhao Y. Temperature-dependent growth of zinc oxide thin films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Journal of Crystal Growth. 2006;296(1):43-50.

Vidhya Y, Velumin A. Electrical characterisation of chemically deposited thin films under magnetic field. Phys. Stat. Sol. 2009;167:143-151.

Callister DJ. Material Science and engineering., John wiley& sons, New York; 2007.

Eshafie I, Ekpunobi A. Optical properties and band offsets of ZnO/PbS superlattice. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2004;11:404-407.