Evaluation of Specific Activity Concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in Soil and Rice Grains from Solid Mineral Mining Sites in Ikwo Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

C. Mgbeokwere *

Physics Department, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

O. L. Gbarato

Physics Department, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

C. P. Ononugbo

Physics Department, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Evaluation of specific activity concentration of 238U, 232Th  and  40K  in soil and rice grains from solid mineral mining sites in Ikwo  area of Ebonyi state was carried out using a Digilert-200 Radiation Meter. The radiological impact of the radionuclides was calculated. The average value concentrations of radionuclides obtained were 170.53, 9.26 and 8.81 (in Bq.Kg-1) for 40K, 238U and 232Th respectively in soil samples and 113.77, 5.86 and 7.08 (in Bq.Kg-1) for 40K, 238U and 232Th respectively in rice grain. These values are below the world permissive value of 400, 35 and 30(in Bq.Kg-1) respectively. All the health risk parameters calculated in soil and rice were below world permissive values. For the radionuclides in rice samples, the average annual committed effective doses(in mSvy-1) for ages (<1 year), (1 – 7 years), (7 – 12 years), (12 – 17 years) and (>17 years) are 0.37, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, 0.02 respectively. These results are less than the world permissive value of 1.00 mSvy-1. Generally, the study shows that the rice consumption was relatively safe radiologically with little contamination which could be attributed to human activities but there is tendency for long term health hazards in future such as the cancer due to doses accumulation. It is recommended that the various human activities that raise the activity concentration in soil in Ikwo mining area that should be reduced. The activity concentration of radionuclides level in the area should be periodically assessed.

Keywords: Activity concentration, health risk parameters, Ikwo


How to Cite

Mgbeokwere, C., O. L. Gbarato, and C. P. Ononugbo. 2023. “Evaluation of Specific Activity Concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in Soil and Rice Grains from Solid Mineral Mining Sites in Ikwo Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria”. Physical Science International Journal 27 (5):34-47. https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2023/v27i5803.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation (Report to the General Assembly). United Nation, New-York. 2000;1.

Daniel A, Audu1 YI, Zakari I, Ibeanu GE. Radiological effects of iron-ore mining and processing at Itakpe, Kogi State. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013;3 (15):2224-3186.

Mgbeokwere C, Ononugbo CP, Bubu A. Assessment of activity concentration of radionuclides in soil and cassava food crop from solid mineral mining site in Ishiagu, Ivo L.G.A of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research and Review in Physics. 2021;5(3):1-3.

Ademola JA. Estimation of annual effective dose due to ingestion of natural radionuclides in Cattle in Tin mining area of Jos Plateau, Nigeria. Natural Science. 2014;6:255-261.

Atipo M, Olarinoye O, Awojoyogbe B, Kolo M. High terrestrial radiation level in an active tin-mine at Jos South, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 2020;24 (3):435–442.

Babatunde BB, Sikoki FD, Avwiri GO, Chad-Umoreh YE. Review of the status of radioactivity profile in the oil and gas producing areas of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2019;202:66–73.

Avwiri GO, Osimobi JC, Agbalagba EO. Evaluation of natural occurring radionuclide variation with lithology depth profile of Udi and Ezeagu Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2013; 4(3):234-239.

Proshad R, Kormoker T, Islam MS, Chandra K. Potential health risk of heavy metals via consumption of rice and vegetables grown in the industrial areas of Bangladesh. International Journal of Human Ecology and Risk Assessment. 2019;10:1–23.

Uchida S, Tagami K, Shang ZR, Choi YH. Uptake of radionuclides and stable elements from paddy soil to rice: A review. Journal Environmental Radioactivity. 2009; 100(9):739–745.

Imran M, Khan A, Hassan A, Kanwal F, Liviu M, Amir M, Iqbal MA. Evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of soil samples collected from Harrapa-Sahiwal, Pakistan. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2010;22(6):4823-4830.

Rodrıguez PB, Tome FV, Lozano J. About the assumption of linearity in soil-to-plant transfer factors for uranium and thorium isotopes. Science of the Total Environment. 2002;284:167-175

Ugbede FO, Osahon OD, Agbalagba EO. Radiological risk assessment of 238U, 232Th and 40K in soil and their uptake by rice cultivated in CAS paddy environment of Abakaliki, Nigeria. Chemistry Africa. 2021;4(3):691-701.

Ande OT, Ojo OA, Adeyolanu OD, Are SK, Adelana A, Adetayo AA, Oluwatosin G. Digital soil mapping and morphogenetic characterization of soils of Ebonyi formation in South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Earth Science Research. 2016; 5(11):1-9.

Ibikunle B, Arogunjo AM, Ajayi OS. Characterization of radiation dose and soil-to-plant transfer factor of natural radionuclides in some cities from south-western Nigeria and its effect on man. Scientific African. 2019;3:1-9.

Alsaffer MS, Jeafarm MS, Kabor NA, Ahmed N. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in Rice plant components and physic-chemical effects of soil on their transportation to grains in Panang, Malaysia. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Science. 2015;44:1-11.

Gad A, Saleh A, Khalifa M. Assessment of natural radionuclides and related occupational risk in agricultural soil, southeastern Nile Delta, Egypt. Arab Journal of Geoscience. 2019;12:188.

Available:https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s12517-019-4356-6

Olanrewaju AI, Avwiri GO. Quantification of activity concentrations and radiation hazard indices in the solid minerals exploration fields of Benue State, Nigeria with multivariate statistical approach. Advances in Research Journal. 2017; 10(1):1-13.

Ocheje JA, Tyovenda AA. Determination of the transfer factor and dose rate of radionuclides in some selected crops in Kogi state, Nigeria. Journal of applied Physics. 2020;12(3):2278-4861.

Ilemona CO, Iyeh VS, Nornert NJ, Hammed OS. Radioactivity concentration in soil and transfer factor of radionuclides 40k, 226Ra and 232Th from soil to rice in Kogi state, Nigeria. Archvies of Applied Science Research. 2016;8(6):34-3 8.

Avwiri G, Osimobi J, Agbalagba E. Evaluation of radiation hazard indices and excess lifetime cancer risk due to natural radioactivity in soil profile of Udi and Ezeagu Local Government Areas of Enugu state, Nigeria. Comprehensive Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 2012;1(1):1-10.

Ononugbo CP, Anakwe U. Background gamma radiation in Nigeria market environment. American Journal of Environmental Science. 2020;16(3):48-54.

Taskin H, Karavus M, Topuzoglu PA, Hindiroglu S, Karahan G. Radionuclide concentrations in soil and life time cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2009;100:49-53.

Sivakumar S, Chandrasekaran A, Ravisanka R, Ravikumar S, Jebakumar J, Vijayagopal P, Vijayalakshmi I, Jose M. Measurement of natural radioactivity, and evaluation of radiation hazards in coastal sediments of east coast of Tamilnadu using statistical approach. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2014;8:375-384.

WHO. WHO Food Standard Programme Codex Alimentarious Commission 13th Session. Report of the Thirty Eight Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, Houstan, United States of America; 2007.

Darwish DAE, Abul-Nasr KTM, El-Khayatt AM. The assessment of natural radioactivity and its associated radiological hazards and dose parameters in granite samples from South Sinai, Egypt. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 2015;8:17-25.

Ehsan M, Samiul MD, Faisal R, Nafisa T, Prodhan H. The activity concentration of radionuclides (226ra, 232th and 40k) in soil samples and associated health hazards in Natore, Kushtia And Pabna District Of Bangladesh. Journal of Bangladesh Academic Science. 2019;43(2):169-180.

Avwiri GO, Agbalagba E. Assessment of natural radioactivity associated radiological health hazards indices and soil-to-crop transfer factors in cultivated Area around a Fertilizer factory in Onne, Nigeria. Environmental Earth Science. 2013; 7(1):1541-1549.

International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). Recommendation of the ICRP Publication, 103; Annals ICRP, 37:2-4. Elsevier; 2003.

Asaduzzaman K, Khandeker M, Amin Y, Mahat R. Uptake and distribution of natural radioactivity in rice from soil in north and west part of peninsular Malaysia for the estimation of ingestion dose to man. Annuals of Nuclear Energy. 2015;76: 85-93.